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PIB Summaries 04 June 2024

  1. World No-Tobacco Day
  2. Draft Resolution Approved to Improve Organ Transplantation Availability


Context:

Recently, The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (GoI), organized an event today to observe World No Tobacco Day 2024.

Relevance:

GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. World No-Tobacco Day
  2. Tobacco Cultivation in India

World No-Tobacco Day:

Creation and Purpose:

  • World No Tobacco Day was established by the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987.
  • A resolution passed in 1988 set the annual observance on May 31st.
  • The day aims to raise awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco use and second-hand smoke, and to discourage tobacco consumption in any form.
  • The theme for the year is “Protecting Children from Tobacco Industry Interference.”

Tobacco Cultivation in India:

Introduction and History:

  • Tobacco cultivation in India was introduced by the Portuguese in 1605.

Area and Production:

  • Major tobacco-growing states in India include Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.
  • Gujarat contributes 45% of the total area (0.13 million hectares) and 30% of production (0.16 million tonnes). It also boasts the highest productivity, yielding 1700 kg per hectare, followed by Andhra Pradesh.

Types of Tobacco:

  • Gujarat: Anand area grows mainly bidi tobacco.
  • Karnataka: Nipani area is known for bidi tobacco.
  • North Bihar and Bengal: Both tabacum and rustica types, used for hookah and limited chewing and snuff varieties.
  • Tamil Nadu: Madurai and Coimbatore regions cultivate cigars, filter, binder, and chewing tobacco.

Climate and Soil:

  • Optimal growth occurs at mean temperatures between 20°C and 27°C.
  • As a rainfed crop, tobacco needs at least 500 mm of well-distributed rainfall during the growing season.
  • It is not typically grown in regions where rainfall exceeds 1200 mm during the season.


Context:

At the 77th World Health Assembly, member states approved a draft resolution aimed at improving the availability of organ transplantation, including human cells and tissues.

Relevance:

Facts for Prelims

Increasing Availability and Ethical Access to Transplantation:

Recent Developments:

  • Member States, led by Spain, approved a resolution to enhance the availability, ethical access, and oversight of human cell, tissue, and organ transplantation.

About the Draft Resolution:

  • Member states are encouraged to align with WHO’s Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue, and Organ Transplantation.
  • Emphasis is placed on promoting donation following neurological or circulatory determination of death.
  • The resolution highlights that insufficient access to transplantation fuels human trafficking for organ removal and poses public health risks.
  • It calls for the establishment of an expert committee to help develop and implement a global strategy.
  • The draft resolution also proposes a global strategy for adoption by 2026 and suggests creating a World Donor Day to raise awareness and donations.

World Health Assembly (WHA):

  • The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of the WHO.
  • It includes delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the Executive Board.
  • Main functions include determining WHO policies, appointing the Director-General, overseeing financial policies, and approving the programme budget.
  • The Assembly meets annually in Geneva, Switzerland.

June 2024
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