- Chhatrapati Shivaji
- Yak Churpi
Maharashtra’s Cultural Affairs Minister recently signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Victoria and Albert Museum in London to bring back Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s legendary wagh nakh (tiger claw) to the state.
GS I- History
Dimensions of the Article:
- About Chhatrapati Shivaji
- Shivaji and the Mughals
About Chhatrapati Shivaji
- Born on February 19, 1630, at Shivneri Fort in Pune.
- He was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who ruled the Bijapur Sultanate’s jagirs of Pune and Supe. Shivaji’s mother was Jijabai, a devout woman who had a strong religious influence on him.
- Shivaji’s name was derived from the name of a provincial deity, Goddess Shivai.
- He created the Maratha Empire by carving out an enclave from the crumbling Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.
- He was formally crowned Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his dominion in Raigad in 1674.
- Religious tolerance and functional integration of the Brahmans, Marathas, and Prabhus ensured the kingdom’s security.
- With the support of a disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations, he constructed a competent and progressive civil rule.
- He had a ministerial council (Asht Pradhan) to advise him on state problems, but he was not bound by it. He had the authority to appoint or fire them.
- He pioneered non-conventional methods (guerrilla warfare) and used strategic elements such as terrain, speed, and surprise to innovate military tactics.
- To defeat his larger and more powerful opponents, he concentrated on pinpoint attacks.
- Although the courageous warrior died in 1680, he is remembered for his bravery and intelligence.
Shivaji and the Mughals
- Shivaji’s meteoric rise posed challenges to the suzerainty of the Mughals.
- His first direct encounter with the Mughals was during Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaigns of the 1650s.
- As Aurangzeb went North to fight for the Mughal throne, Shivaji was able to seize further territory.
- His tactics against the Mughals were adapted to the specific nature of his force and the flabby Mughal armies. Using swift cavalry attacks, he would raid and pillage Mughal strongholds.
- While on the rare occasion he would engage in battle to actually capture and hold Mughal positions, most often, he would simply cause much menace, raid the treasury, and leave with the Mughals in terror and disarray.
- Famously, in 1664, he attacked the port of Surat (now in Gujarat) and plundered one of the richest and busiest commercial towns of Mughal India while the local governor hid in a nearby fort.
- As the legend of Shivaji and the physical sphere of his influence grew, Aurangzeb sent a 100,000-strong, well-equipped army under Raja Jai Singh I to subdue him in 1665.
- After putting up a valiant fight, Shivaji was besieged in the Purandar hill fort.
In a significant milestone for the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, the unique and culturally significant yak milk product, ‘Yak Churpi,’ has been granted the coveted Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
GS III: Indian Economy
Dimensions of the Article:
- Yak Churpi: A Dairy Product from Arunachal Pradesh
- Geographical Indications (GI) Tag
Yak Churpi: A Dairy Product from Arunachal Pradesh
- Yak churpi is a dairy product crafted from the milk of the indigenous Arunachali yak breed.
- It is produced by tribal yak pastoralists known as Brokpas who engage in seasonal migration, taking their yaks to high-altitude regions (10,000 ft and higher) during summers and returning to mid-altitude mountainous areas during winters.
Yak Breed in Arunachal Pradesh:
- The remarkable yaks primarily inhabit the West Kameng and Tawang districts of Arunachal Pradesh.
Nature of Churpi:
- Churpi is a naturally fermented dairy product with a rich protein content.
- It is a vital dietary staple for tribal communities residing in the cold and mountainous regions of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Yak churpi serves various culinary purposes. It is used as a vegetable substitute and often incorporated into vegetable and meat curries.
- It is commonly consumed with rice, adding nutritional value to the diet.
GI Tag and Conservation:
- The granting of a Geographical Indication (GI) tag to yak churpi is expected to benefit yak conservation and the socio-economic well-being of yak pastoralists.
- Arunachali yaks are unique in terms of body shape, size, strain, and weight, setting them apart from yaks found in other regions.
- Arunachali yaks hold the distinction of being the only registered yak breed in India.
Geographical Indications (GI) Tag
Definition and Importance:
- Geographical Indications of Goods indicate the country or place of origin of a product.
- They assure consumers of the product’s quality and distinctiveness derived from its specific geographical locality.
- GI tags are an essential component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and are protected under international agreements like the Paris Convention and TRIPS.
Administration and Registration:
- Geographical Indications registration in India is governed by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.
- The registration and protection are administered by the Geographical Indication Registry under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade (DIPIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- The registration is valid for 10 years, and it can be renewed for further periods of 10 years each.
Significance and Examples:
- GI tags provide a unique identity and reputation to products based on their geographical origin.
- The first product in India to receive a GI tag was Darjeeling tea.
- Karnataka has the highest number of GI tags with 47 registered products, followed by Tamil Nadu with 39.
Ownership and Proprietorship:
- Any association, organization, or authority established by law can be a registered proprietor of a GI tag.
- The registered proprietor’s name is entered in the Register of Geographical Indication for the applied product.
- Protection and Enforcement:
- Geographical Indications protect the interests of producers and prevent unauthorized use of the product’s name or origin.
- Enforcement of GI rights helps maintain the quality and reputation of the products associated with their specific geographical regions.
Location of the Geographical Indications Registry:
- The Geographical Indications Registry is located in Chennai, India.