- Coronal Mass Ejections
- SAI20 Summit
Focus: GS I: Geography
Why in News?
Researchers have been closely monitoring the ongoing changes in the energy state of the solar eruption’s core that occurred on July 20, 2017, and have made an intriguing discovery.
Findings of the Study:
Core Temperature Stability:
- The study found that despite the eruption expelling highly magnetized plasma from the solar corona into space, the core of the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) maintained a consistently stable temperature.
- The CME core remained at a constant temperature as it propagated from 1.05 to 1.35 R sun, defying the expected adiabatic cooling due to expansion.
Behavior of CME Core Expansion:
- The expansion of the CME core exhibited characteristics more akin to an isothermal process than an adiabatic process.
- In an isothermal process, the temperature of the system remains constant, while an adiabatic process involves no heat transfer between the system and its surroundings.
Explanation of “1.05 to 1.35 Rsun”:
- The expression “1.05 to 1.35 Rsun” denotes a range of values representing the size or radius of the Sun.
- The object being described has a radius ranging from 1.05 times the radius of the Sun (Rsun) to 1.35 times the radius of the Sun.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs):
Definition and Impact:
- CMEs are large-scale eruptions of charged particles (plasma) and magnetic fields from the solar atmosphere into space.
- These eruptions can disrupt various ground- and space-based technologies, as well as satellites on Earth.
Thermodynamic Properties of CMEs:
- Understanding the evolution of thermodynamic properties, such as temperature and density, within CMEs is crucial for assessing their impact on communication systems on Earth.
- CMEs exhibit a wide range of plasma temperatures, spanning from cold chromospheric material (around 104 K) to hot plasma (around 107 K).
Energy Exchange Processes in CMEs:
- As CMEs propagate, different processes can exchange energy (electrical, kinetic, potential, thermal, etc.), leading to heating or cooling of the plasma.
- Gaining a better understanding of CMEs enables improved monitoring of space weather and its potential effects.
Focus: GS II: International Relations
Why in News?
The SAI20 Summit under India’s G20 Presidency began in Goa, led by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India.
SAI20 Priority Areas:
- The SAI20 (Supreme Audit Institutions 20) priority areas include “Blue Economy” and “Responsible Artificial Intelligence.”
- These areas highlight both the opportunities and concerns associated with new-age developments.
- Genuine cooperation among SAIs is crucial to address these priority areas effectively.
Cooperation and Capacity Building:
- Close cooperation among SAIs is necessary for knowledge sharing and capacity building.
- This collaboration enables SAIs to collectively tackle challenges and leverage opportunities in areas such as the Blue Economy and Responsible Artificial Intelligence.
Establishment of a Center of Excellence:
- SAI India’s International Centre for Environment Audit and Sustainable Development (iCED) has established a Center of Excellence in the Blue Economy.
- The center aims to foster research and act as a catalyst for knowledge sharing and capacity building among SAIs.
Compendiums on Blue Economy and Responsible AI:
- Two compendiums on Blue Economy and Responsible Artificial Intelligence have been published with contributions from various Supreme Audit Institutions.
- These compendiums provide valuable insights and information on these subjects.
Challenges and Role of SAIs:
- Auditing the Blue Economy and Responsible AI poses challenges due to their pervasive and cross-cutting nature, coupled with evolving technology and usage.
- SAIs have a crucial role in auditing these areas to ensure good governance, transparency, and accountability.
About Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs):
- SAIs are public oversight institutions that are responsible for auditing the use of public funds by governments.
- They play a crucial role in ensuring accountability within a country.
- SAIs scrutinize public financial management and reporting to provide assurance that resources are utilized in accordance with prescribed rules and regulations.
- The mandate of most SAIs is derived from the constitution and/or legislation of their respective countries.
- SAIs perform various types of audits, including financial audits, compliance audits, and performance audits.
- Financial audits involve examining an organization’s accounting procedures and financial statements to ensure accuracy and transparency.
- Compliance audits focus on reviewing the legality of transactions carried out by the audited body.
- Performance audits assess the efficiency, effectiveness, and economy of the government’s activities and undertakings.
- In India, the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) serves as the country’s SAI.