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PIB Summaries 16 November 2023

  1. Picocystis Salinarum
  2. Asian Development Bank


Recently, a young researcher has divulged the secret of how the Picocystis Salinarum survives the harshest of conditions by resorting to physiological adaptation to highly saline-alkaline/hyperosmotic conditions.


Facts for Prelims

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Picocystis Salinarum
  2. Sambhar Lake – Key Facts

Picocystis Salinarum

  • Type: Globally widespread picoplanktonic green algae.
  • Size: One of the smallest green algae.
  • Habitat: Found in hypersaline soda lake Sambhar, Rajasthan.
  • First Sighting: First observed in India in Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan, despite being found in saline-soda lakes worldwide.
Unique Features
  • Survival in Extreme Environments:
    • Adapted to hypersaline conditions, showcasing its ability to survive in extreme environments.
  • Enhanced Photosynthesis:
    • Exhibits enhanced photosynthetic activity in highly saline-alkaline conditions, a notable feature as photosynthesis is typically suppressed under hyperosmotic conditions in most photosynthetic organisms.
  • Response Mechanism:
    • Utilizes chaperone proteins as a key response to high salinity-alkalinity.

Sambhar Lake – Key Facts

  • Largest Saline Wetland: India’s largest saline wetland located in Rajasthan.
  • Ephemeral Salt Lake: Characterized as an ephemeral salt lake.
  • Ramsar Site: Designated as a Ramsar Site, recognizing it as a wetland of international importance.
  • Geographical Representation: Represents the depression of the Aravalli Range.
  • Water Sources: Receives water from five rivers: Samaod, Khari, Mantha, Khandela, Medtha, and Roopangarh.


Recently, India signed a $400 million policy-based loan agreement with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to create high-quality urban infrastructure, improve service delivery, and promote efficient governance systems.


GS II- Inter Groupings

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Asian Development Bank (ADB)

About Asian Development Bank (ADB):

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966 to promote social and economic development in Asia.
  • It is headquartered in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
  • The ADB was modelled closely on the World Bank and an official United Nations Observer.
  • Japan holds the largest proportion of shares in ADB followed by the USA, and it has a weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions (just like the World Bank).
  • The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries.
  • ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration.
  • ADB aids in reducing poverty through investments in the form of loans, grants and information sharing (in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems), helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources, as well as other areas.

December 2023