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PIB Summaries 18 November 2022 

Contents:

  1. President of India on the occasion of the Janjatiya Gaurav Divas paid tribute
  2. The human population across the globe touched 8 billion
  3. Climate Change Performance Index 2023: India ranked 8th on the list
  4. National Epilepsy Day is Observed On 17 November

Janjatiya Gayrav Divas


Relevance:

  • GS 1 – Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present – significant events, personalities, issues.
  • GS 1 – The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Prelims – History of India and Indian National Movement.

In Detail:

President of India on the occasion of the Janjatiya Gaurav Divas paid tribute to the freedom fighter Bhagwan Birsa Munda on his birth anniversary.

About Birsa Munda

  • Birsa Munda born on 15th November 1875 was a member of the Munda Tribe of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau.
  • He was an Indian freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero.
  • He spearheaded an Indian tribal religious Millenarian movement during British rule in the late 19th century across the tribal belt of modern-day Jharkhand and Bihar.

Role played by Birsa Munda played

  • Munda received his early education under the guidance of his teacher Jaipal Nag.
  • Influenced by him, Birsa converted to Christianity in order to join the German Mission school. He, however, opted out of the school after a few years.
  • With the impact of British rule in the region, as well as the activities of Christian missionaries, many tribals became critical of the British and missionaries’ presence. From 1886 to 1890, Birsa Munda spent a large amount of time in Chaibasa, which was close to the centre of the Sardari agitation.
  • The Sardars’ activities had a strong impact on him and he became a part of the anti-missionary and anti-government programmes.
  • By the time he left Chaibasa in 1890, Birsa was strongly entrenched in the movement against the British oppression of the tribal communities.
  • Birsa soon emerged as a tribal leader who brought people together on fighting for these issues.
  • He became a God-like figure, with him leading the faith of ‘Birsait’.
  • Soon, members of the Munda and Oraon communities started joining the Birsait sect and it turned into a challenge to British conversion activities.

Ulgulan movement

  • The Ulgulan movement of 1899 also involved the use of weapons and guerrilla warfare to drive out foreigners.
  • Munda encouraged the tribals to refuse following colonial laws and paying rent.
  • He encouraged changes in the social sphere too, challenging religious practices to fight against superstition, and became known as ‘Bhagwan’ (God) and ‘Dharati Aba’ (Father of the earth) by his followers.
  • But the British were soon able to halt the movement.
  • On March 3, 1900, Munda was arrested by the British police while he was sleeping with his tribal guerilla army at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur.
  • It is believed he died in Ranchi jail due to an illness on June 9, 1900, at the young age of 25.
  • Though he lived a short life and the movement died out soon after his death, Birsa Munda is known to have paid a significant role in mobilising the tribal community against the British and forcing the colonial officials to introduce laws protecting the land rights of the tribals.

About Janjatiya Gaurav Divas

  • The Janjatiya Gaurav Divas is celebrated every year to recognize the efforts of the tribals in the preservation of cultural heritage and promotion of Indian values of national pride, valour, and hospitality.

Human Population Across 8 Billion Mark


Relevance:

  • GS 1 – Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • GS 2 – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • GS 2 – Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

In Detail:

The human population across the globe touched 8 billion according to the United Nations Population Fund.

Key Points

  • As of 2022, more than half the world’s population lives in Asia, with China and India being the two most populous countries with more than 1.4 billion people each.
  • According to the UN population report the global population is growing at its slowest rate since 1950, having fallen under 1% in 2020.
  • The world’s population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and a peak of around 10.4 billion during the 2080s.

Climate Change Performance Index 2023


Relevance:

  • GS 3 – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Prelims – General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change

In Detail:

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2023

  • The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2023 was released and published by three environmental nongovernmental organizations viz. New Climate Institute, German-watch, and the Climate Action Network (CAN) International.
  • India rose two spots to rank eighth out of 63 countries in the Climate Change Performance Index 2023.
  • In 2022 and 2021, India stood in the 10th spot.

Key Points

  • India scored 67.35 points.
  • In the overall standings, no country ranked first, second, or third on the index.
  • Denmark, with a score of 79,61, ranked fourth, followed by Sweden with 73.28 points.

CCPI looks at four categories with 14 indicators:

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions,
  2. Renewable Energy,
  3. Energy Use, and
  4. Climate Policy.

National Epilepsy Day


Relevance:

  • GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

In Detail:

National Epilepsy Day is Observed On 17 November

  • Nov 17, National Epilepsy Day 2022 is observed to raise public awareness of epilepsy.
  • International Epilepsy Day is observed every year on the Second Monday of February across the world.
  • In 2022, International Epilepsy Day falls on February 14, 2022.
  • Theme of National Epilepsy Awareness Month 2022 is “There is no NEAM without ME”

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