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PIB Summaries 20 July 2023


  1. Universal Postal Union
  2. Mangal Pandey

Universal Postal Union

Focus: GS III: Indian Economy

Why in News?

The Universal Postal Union (UPU) has announced plans to evaluate the integration of the Unified Payment Interface (UPI) with cross-border remittances using the global postal network.

Benefits of Integrating UPI with UPU:

  • Secure and Real-time Remittances: UPI provides a secure and convenient platform for cross-border remittances, offering a real-time payment experience for users.
  • Leveraging Global Postal Network: By integrating UPI with the extensive reach and infrastructure of the global postal network, the reach of UPI-enabled remittances can be expanded significantly.
  • Accessibility in Remote Areas: This integration can offer a reliable and accessible remittance solution for individuals, especially in remote areas where traditional banking services may be limited.
  • Promoting Inclusive Postal Services: This initiative aligns with UPU’s goal of promoting efficient and inclusive postal services globally, ensuring that more people have access to affordable financial services.

About Universal Postal Union (UPU):

Establishment and Structure:

  • The UPU was established in 1874 through the Treaty of Bern. It is a United Nations specialized agency and the primary forum for international cooperation in the postal sector.
  • The organization is headquartered in Bern, Switzerland, and consists of four bodies: Congress, the Council of Administration (CA), the Postal Operations Council (POC), and the International Bureau (IB).


  • Any member country of the United Nations can become a member of the UPU. Non-member countries can join if approved by at least two-thirds of the member countries.
  • Currently, the UPU has 192 member countries, and India joined in 1876.

Role and Functions:

  • The UPU coordinates postal policies among member nations and the global postal system.
  • It sets rules for international mail exchanges and makes recommendations to stimulate growth in mail, parcel, and financial services volumes.
  • The UPU aims to improve the quality of service for customers and promote efficiency in international postal operations.
  • It also oversees the Telematics and Express Mail Service (EMS) cooperatives.

Mangal Pandey

Focus: GS I- History

Why in News?

Prime Minister has paid tributes to freedom fighter, Mangal Pandey on his birth anniversary.

About Mangal Pandey 

  • He was born on July 19, 1827, in a town near Faizabad, what is now eastern Uttar Pradesh state in northern India, although some give his birthplace as a small village near Lalitpur (in present-day southwestern Uttar Pradesh).
  • He was from a high-caste Brahman landowning family that professed strong Hindu beliefs.
  • He joined the army of the British East India Company in 1849 and he was made a soldier (sepoy) in the 6th Company of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry, which included a large number of Brahmans.
Rebellion against East India Company
  • He revolted against the East India Company for introducing cartridges that were greased with animal fat as it hurt the religious sentiments of the soldiers.
  • Eventually, this movement of rebels reached other parts of India and which led to a mass revolt against the government.
  • The movement of protest and rebellion came to be known as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, also known as the First War of Independence.
  • On March 29, 1857, Pandey and his fellow sepoys rose up in rebellion against the British officers and even attempted to shoot them. As a result of this, he was executed on April 7, 1857, in Barrackpore.
  • On May 6th, the entire  34th Bengal Native Infantry was disbanded ‘with disgrace’. This was carried out because an investigation ‘revealed’ that the soldiers had not restrained a mutinying soldier.

December 2023