- International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)
- Hakku Patra distribution drive
International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)
Focus: GS II: International Relations
Why in News?
Recently, the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways, in association with India Ports Global Ltd, conducted a workshop on the ‘Linking Chabahar Port with INSTC’ in Mumbai.
What is INSTC?
- India, Iran, and Russia initially agreed to the International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) project in 2000 in St. Petersburg; ten additional central Asian and west Asian nations have since joined as observers: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus, Oman, Syria, and Bulgaria.
- Although they are not signatories to the INSTC agreement, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan are interested in using the transport corridor.
- It aims to cut the cost of freight transportation between India and Russia by around 30% and to cut the transit time from 40 days by more than half. It proposes a 7,200 km multi-mode network comprising ship, rail, and road lines.
- The route largely comprises transporting cargo from Russia, India, Iran, and Azerbaijan.
- It would be provided as a viable and fairer alternative to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
- Further, it will enhance regional connectivity.
The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Astrakhan, etc.
About Chabahar Port
- The Chabahar Port is Located on the Gulf of Oman and is the only oceanic port of the country.
- With this, India can bypass Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan.
- It will also boost India’s access to Iran, the key gateway to the International North-South Transport Corridor that has sea, rail and road routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia.
- It also helps India counter Chinese presence in the Arabian Seawhich China is trying to ensure by helping Pakistan develop the Gwadar port. Gwadar port is less than 400 km from Chabahar by road and 100 km by sea.
- With Chabahar port being developed and operated by India, Iran also becomes a military ally to India. Chabahar could be used in case China decides to flex its navy muscles by stationing ships in Gwadar port to reckon its upper hand in the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Middle East.
- Trade benefits: With Chabahar port becoming functional, there will be a significant boost in the import of iron ore, sugar and rice to India. The import cost of oil to India will also see a considerable decline. India has already increased its crude purchase from Iran since the West imposed ban on Iran was lifted.
- From a diplomatic perspective, Chabahar port could be used as a point from where humanitarian operations could be coordinated.
Hakku Patra Distribution Drive
Focus: GS II: Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Prime Minister recently launched the ‘Hakku Patra’ (land title deed) distribution drive by distributing title deeds (hakku patra) to about fifty thousand beneficiaries of newly declared revenue villages in Kalaburagi, Karnataka.
Hakku Patra Distribution Drive:
- It is a part of the Ambedkar Rural Housing Scheme of Karnataka.
- The government offers free registration of Hakku Patra land in the beneficiary’s name.
- Any house built on the Hakku Patra land should be used as the beneficiary’s house and not for rental purposes.
What is Hakku Patra:
- Hakku means “the right” and Patra means “paper” or “document”.
- It is a legal document that confirms an individual’s rightful inheritance of a property.
- It is issued to the nation’s underprivileged section, including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, urban slum dwellers, handicapped, and other disadvantaged populations.
- In most cases, the land on which the Hakku Patra is issued is government-owned with specific conditions attached.
Benefits of Hakku Patra:
- Confirms an individual as the legitimate owner of the land or property.
- State-guaranteed document.
- Can be used to avail bank loans.
- Resolves disputes over ownership or rights to the land.
- Helps prevent trespassing or encroachments on the property.