- Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM)
- Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund(PMNRF)
- 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation
- India emerges as largest exporters of cucumber and gherkins in the world
Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM)
Focus: GS III- Agriculture
Why in News?
In a major boost to promote precision farming in India, the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has issued guidelines to make drone technology affordable to the stakeholders of this sector.
- The guidelines of “Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization” (SMAM) have been amended which envisages granting upto 100% of the cost of agriculture drone or Rs. 10 lakhs, whichever is less, as grant for purchase of drones by the Farm Machinery Training & Testing Institutes, ICAR institutes, Krishi Vigyan Kendras and State Agriculture Universities for taking up large scale demonstrations of this technology on the farmers’ fields.
- The Farmers Producers Organizations (FPOs) would be eligible to receive grant up to 75% of the cost of agriculture drone for its demonstrations on the farmers’ fields.
About Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization
Nodal: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare
- The Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM) was introduced in April 2014 with an aim to have inclusive growth of farm mechanisation to boost productivity.
- The scheme is implemented in all the states, to promote the usage of farm mechanization and increase the ratio of farm power to cultivable unit area up to 2.5 kW/ha.
- Agricultural Mechanization plays a vital role in optimizing the use of land, water energy resources, manpower and other inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc.
- Increasing the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low.
- Promoting ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership.
- Creating hubs for hi-tech & high value farm equipments.
- Creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities.
- Ensuring performance testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country.
Aim and Need SMAM scheme
- To boost up mechanization in the agriculture sector improved agricultural implements and machinery are essential inputs
- For modern agriculture mechanization enhance the productivity of crops besides reducing human drudgery and cost of cultivation.
- Mechanization also helps in improving the utilization efficiency of other inputs.
- To boost the income of farmers and growth of the agricultural economy.
- Agricultural Mechanization is one of the key drivers for the sustainable development of the agriculture sector.
- SMAM will have Central Sector Schemes under component No.1 & 2 (given above) in which Government of India contributes 100%.
- It will be a Centrally Sponsored Schemes are covered under component No. 3 to 8 (given above) including Administrative and Flexi funds in which Government of India contributes 60% and states contribute 40% except North eastern states and Himalayan regions states where it is 90 %(Central Share) and 10% (State Share). For Union Territories, it is 100% centre share.
Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund(PMNRF)
Focus: Welfare schemes for vulnerable Sections
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has expressed sorrow on the deaths in the building fire at Tardeo in Mumbai.
- He also approved ex-gratia of Rs. 2 lakh each from PMNRF to be given to the next of kin of those who have lost their live. The injured would be given Rs. 50,000 each.
About Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund(PMNRF)
- Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) in India is the fund raised to provide support for people affected by natural and man made disasters.
- Natural disasters covered under this include flood, cyclone, earthquake etc. Man made disasters include major accidents, acid attacks, riots etc.
- The fund is also allotted to the people for treatment like cancer, kidney transplantation, heart surgery etc.
- The fund was first consolidated during the time of the first prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.
- Difference between PMCARES and PMNRF in the below table;-
|PMNRF (Prime Minister National Relief Fund)||PM CARES Fund [Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund]|
|PMNRF (Prime Minister National Relief Fund) was established in January 1948.||PM CARES Fund was established on 27th March 2020.|
|PMNRF was established by the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru.||The PM CARES Fund was established by the current Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi.|
|The initial purpose of establishing PMNRF (Prime Minister National Relief Fund) was to help the people displaced due to partition of India and Pakistan.||The PM CARES fund was established with the objective of helping people affected by COVID-19 pandemic.|
|Chairman of the Prime Minister National Relief Fund (PMNRF) is the Prime Minister of India. Other members are from Tata Trusts, representatives of FICCI, Congress President.||Chairman of the PM-CARES fund is the Prime Minister of India. The Prime Minister has the power to nominate members. The other members of the PM CARES Fund are the Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.|
|The minimum amount one can donate in the Prime Minister National Relief Fund (PMNRF) is Rs 100.||PM CARES Fund allows option for Micro donation, one can donate as low as Rs 10 in the PM CARES Fund.|
|PMNRF focuses on all kinds of natural disasters and calamities like Cyclones, Earthquakes, Floods, Tsunamis etc. The PMNRF funds are also utilized for acid attack victims, cancer treatments, kidney transplants etc.||PM CARES fund is exclusively used for COVID-19 purposes.|
|The Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF), which was set up in 1948, is not audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)||CARES Fund is not being audited by the CAG, and is being audited by a private party appointed directly by the Government of India instead.|
4th Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation
Focus: GS III- Conservation
Why in News?
Recently, the 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on tiger conservation was held.
- 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on tiger conservation was organized by Malaysia and Global Tiger Forum (GTF).
- National Tiger Conservation Authority of India has also decided to introduce guidelines for the reintroduction of tigers that can be used by other Tiger Range Countries.
- The conference is an important event for reviewing progress towards the Global Tiger Recovery Programme and commitments to tiger conservation.
- India will facilitate Tiger Range Countries towards finalisation of New Delhi declaration for the Global Tiger Summit to be held in Russia later this year (2022).
- India is one of the Founding members of the intergovernmental platform of Tiger Range Countries – Global Tiger Forum.
- Over the years, GTF has expanded its programme on multiple thematic areas, while working closely with the Government of India, tiger states in India and tiger range countries.
- Tiger Range Countries in GTF: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Nepal, Myanmar and Vietnam.
Global Tiger Forum (GTF)
- Established: 1994
- Headquarters: New Delhi.
- The General Assembly of GTF meets after every three years.
- It utilises cooperative policies, common approaches, technical expertise, scientific modules and other appropriate programmes.
- As per the Global Tiger Forum, it was set up to highlight the rationale for tiger preservation and provide leadership and a common approach throughout the world in order to safeguard the survival of the tiger, its prey, and its habitat.
- The Global Tiger Forum was set up to promote a worldwide campaign to save the tiger, its prey and its habitat.
- The Global Tiger Forum has plans to promote a legal framework in the countries involved for biodiversity conservation and to increase the protected area network of habitats of the tiger and facilitate their inter passages in the range countries.
India emerged as largest exporters of cucumber and gherkins in the world
Focus: GS III- Indian Economy, Agriculture, Facts for Prelims
Why in News?
India has emerged as the largest exporter of cucumber and gherkins in the world. India has exported cucumber and gherkins to the tune of 1,23,846 Metric Tonnes with a value of USD 114 million during April-October, 2021.
- India has crossed the USD 200 million mark of export of agricultural processed product, – pickling cucumber, which is globally referred as gherkins or cornichons, in the last financial year.
- In 2020-21, India had shipped 2,23,515 Metric Tonnes of cucumber and gherkins with a value of USD 223 million.
- Gherkins are exported under two categories — cucumbers and gherkins, which are prepared and preserved by vinegar or acetic acid and cucumbers and gherkins, which are provisionally preserved.
- Gherkin cultivation, processing and exports started in India during the early 1990s with a modest beginning in Karnataka and later extended to the neighbouring states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Nearly 15% production of the world’s gherkin requirement is grown in India.
- Gherkins is currently exported to more than 20 countries, with major destinations being North America, European countries and Oceanic countries such as USA, France, Germany, Australia, Spain, South Korea, Canada, Japan, Belgium, Russia, China, Sri Lanka and Israel.
- Apart from its export potential, the gherkin industry plays a key role in the creation of rural employment.
- In India, cultivation of gherkins is carried out under contract farming by around 90,000 small and marginal farmers with an annual production area of 65,000 acres.