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PIB Summaries 24 July 2023

CONTENTS

  1. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
  2. Cannabis Medicine Project

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)


Focus: GS II- Welfare Schemes

Why in News?

The latest data tabled in the Parliament by Union Minister for Farmers’ Welfare shows that agriculture insurance premium has been going up while claims payment is down under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.

About Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)

  • The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) launched on 2016 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is an insurance service for farmers for their yields.
  • PMFBY is in line with One Nation – One Scheme theme.
  • The PMFBY will replace the existing two schemes National Agricultural Insurance Scheme as well as the Modified NAIS.
  • The Scheme shall be implemented through a multi-agency framework by selected insurance companies under the overall guidance & control of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW), Government of India (GOI) and the concerned State in co-ordination with various other agencies.
  • Premium cost over and above the farmer share is equally subsidized by States and the Central Government of India. However, the Central Government shares 90% of the premium subsidy for North Eastern States to promote the uptake in the region.
Objectives
  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crop as a result of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
  • To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming.
  • To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
  • To ensure flow of credit to the agriculture sector.
Beneficiaries: All farmers growing notified crops in a notified area during the season who have insurable interest in the crop are eligible.
Coverage of Crops:
  • Oil seeds
  • Food crop
  • Annual Commercial / Annual Horticultural crops.
  • In addition, for perennial crops, pilots for coverage can be taken for those perennial horticultural crops for which standard methodology for yield estimation is available.

Risks covered under the scheme

  • Prevented Sowing/Planting/Germination Risk: Insured area is prevented from sowing/planting/germination due to deficit rainfall or adverse seasonal/weather conditions.
  • Standing Crop (Sowing to Harvesting): Comprehensive risk insurance is provided to cover yield losses due to non-preventable risks, viz. Drought, Dry spell, Flood, Inundation, widespread Pests and Disease attack, Landslides, Fire due to natural causes, Lightening, Storm, Hailstorm and Cyclone.
  • Post-Harvest Losses: Coverage is available only up to a maximum period of two weeks from harvesting, for those crops which are required to be dried in cut and spread / small bundled condition in the field after harvesting against specific perils of Hailstorm, Cyclone, Cyclonic rains and Unseasonal rains
  • Localized Calamities: Loss/damage to notified insured crops resulting from occurrence of identified localized risks of Hailstorm, Landslide, Inundation, Cloud burst and Natural fire due to lightening affecting isolated farms in the notified area.
  • Add-on coverage for crop loss due to attack by wild animals: The States may consider providing add-on coverage for crop loss due to attack by wild animals wherever the risk is perceived to be substantial and is identifiable.
  • General Exclusions: Losses arising out of war and nuclear risks, malicious damage and other preventable risks shall be excluded.

Cannabis Medicine Project


Focus: GS III: Science and Technology

Why in News?

Recently, Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology said that Jammu is going to pioneer India’s first Cannabis Medicine Project.

Cannabis Medicine Project

  • The ‘Cannabis Research Project’ led by CSIR-IIIM Jammu is a pioneering initiative in India, undertaken in partnership with a Canadian firm under the Science & Technology Ministry.
  • This project aims to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of Cannabis for patients suffering from neuropathies, cancer, epilepsy, and other malignancies.
  • It is a significant step towards harnessing the positive properties of Cannabis for medicinal purposes, despite its association with substance abuse.
Importance for Atma-Nirbhar Bharat:
  • The project aligns with the vision of Atma-Nirbhar Bharat by enabling the production of high-quality drugs for various medical conditions, including neuropathies and diabetic pains.

Cannabis Cultivation:

  • Cannabis, also known as weed, pot, or marijuana, contains over 120 active ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • Two prominent cannabinoids are cannabidiol (CBD), which is non-intoxicating and non-euphoric, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound.
Legal Provisions in India:
  • The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, governs the use of cannabis in India.
  • The Act prohibits the sale and production of cannabis resin and flowers, but allows for the use of leaves and seeds.
  • Different states have their own laws related to the consumption, possession, sale, or purchase of cannabis.
  • Some states like Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Madhya Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh have started formulating policies and rules for the scientific use of cannabis.

CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR-IIIM)

Establishment and Legacy:
  • CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR-IIIM) holds the distinction of being the oldest scientific research institute in India.
  • Its historical contributions include the discovery of mint in the 1960s, which earned it the title of the “centre of purple revolution.”
  • Currently, it is actively engaged in the Cannabis Research Project, exploring the therapeutic potential of Cannabis.
Foundation and Evolution:
  • CSIR-IIIM was initially established as a research and production center in 1941.
  • In 1957, it was taken over by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), an esteemed organization dedicated to scientific research and development in India.
Mandate and Objectives:
  • CSIR-IIIM is mandated to discover novel drugs and therapeutic approaches from natural products, encompassing both plant and microbial origins, leveraging the potential of biotechnology.
  • It aims to develop cutting-edge technologies, drugs, and high-value products for both national and international markets, fostering advancements in integrative medicine and natural product-based therapies.

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