- Madan Mohan Malaviya
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
Focus: GS I- Modern History
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has paid tributes to Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya on his Jayanti.
About Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya
- Born on 25th December 1861, in Allahabad (now Prayagraj) in Uttar Pradesh.
- He played a key role in the Indian independence struggle against British rule and founded the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1916.
- He is also remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system, especially in the Caribbean.
- Indentured labour was a system of bonded labour that was instituted following the abolition of slavery in 1833.
- Indentured labour were recruited to work on sugar, cotton and tea plantations, and rail construction projects in British colonies in West Indies, Africa and South East Asia.
- He popularized the term ‘Satyamev Jayate’. However, the phrase originally belongs to the Mundaka Upanishad. The term now is the national motto of India.
- He was given the title of ‘Mahamana’ by Rabindranath Tagore and the second President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan gave him the status of a ‘Karmayogi’.
- Devnagri was introduced in the British-Indian courts because of Malviya’s efforts with the British government. This is still considered as one of his greatest achievements.
- Madan Mohan Malviya was expelled from the Brahmin community for expressing his views on caste discrimination and Brahmanical patriarchy.
- He worked immensely for Hindu-Muslim unity. He is known to have given famous speeches on communal harmony.
- He helped establish the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”) in 1906, which brought diverse local Hindu nationalist movements together.
- Malaviya’s consciousness toward the public led to the launch of his own Hindi-language weekly, the Abhyudaya (1907);
- the Leader of Allahabad, an English-language daily (1909);
- and the Hindi monthly the Maryada (1910).
- He also served as the chairman of the board of Hindustan times and facilitated the launch of its Hindi edition.
- He died on 12th November, 1946, at the age of 84.
- In 2014, he was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, the country’s highest civilian award.
Poona Pact (1932)
It was signed by Ambedkar on behalf of the depressed classes and Madan Mohan Malviya on behalf of the Upper Caste Hindus as a means to end the fast that Gandhi was undertaking in jail as a protest against the MacDonald communal award.
Focus: GS III: Environment and Ecology
Why in News?
A recent report from the (CPCB) said that the number of polluted stretches in India’s rivers has fallen from 351 in 2018 to 311 in 2022 though the number of most polluted stretches is practically unchanged.
About the report
- The CPCB network monitors water quality at 4,484 locations in 28 States and seven Union Territories including rivers, lakes, creeks, drains and canals.
- The number of polluted river stretches categorised in ‘Priority 1 to 5.
- Priority 1:River stretches with a BOD exceeding 30 mg/L are considered the most polluted and thus need the most urgent remediation.
- Priority 2: Indicating a BOD of 20-30 mg/L.
- Priority 3: BOD between 10-20 mg/l
- Priority 4: BOD between 6-10 mg/l.
- Priority 5: Indicating 3-6 mg/L.
- While Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh had the maximum number of ‘Priority 1’ river stretches (6), Maharashtra had the maximum number of polluted river stretches i.e. 55, followed by Madhya Pradesh (19), Bihar (18), Kerala (18), Karnataka (17) and Uttar Pradesh (17).
BOD & COD
- The Biochemical Oxygen Demand or Biological Oxygen Demand, is a measurement of the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) that is used by aerobic microorganisms when decomposing organic matter in water.
- The Chemical Oxygen Demand or COD is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize soluble and particulate organic matter in water.
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a Statutory Organisation under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).
- It was established in 1970s under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act.
- CPCB is the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control.
- It is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
- It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- It Co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them.