- Greening Initiatives of India’s Coal Sector
- Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers
Greening Initiatives of India’s Coal Sector
Focus: GS-III: Environment and Ecology
Why in News?
- The Ministry of Coal has set an ambitious goal for coal companies to bring more than 2400 hectare of area in and around coalfields under green cover with plantation of more than 50 lakh saplings for the year 2022-23.
- The identified areas include reclaimed mined out areas of coal companies and areas outside of leasehold – amenable for plantation and made available by State Government agencies.
- As of now, greening drive is in full swing in coal mining areas and about 1000 Ha of land has already been covered through block plantation, avenue plantation, grassland creation, bamboo plantation and high-tech cultivation by 15th August, 2022.
- The above stated greening initiatives of the coal sector support India’s NDC commitment to create additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
- Afforestation is a proven way of restoration of lands damaged by anthropogenic activities and must for achieving satisfactory rehabilitation of a mined landscape.
- It helps in minimizing the footprints of coal mining, prevents soil erosion, stabilises the climate, preserves wild life and enhances quality of air & watersheds.
- On a global scale, it mitigates climate change through carbon sequestration and also results in economic growth of the region.
- Countries from all over the world had pledged to reach a new international climate agreement (Paris Agreement) by the end of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in 2015.
- The Paris Agreement is a global treaty in which over 200 countries agreed to collaborate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow climate change.
- The agreement aims to limit global warming to less than 2°C, preferably 1.5°C, when compared to pre-industry levels.
- Countries have agreed to make public their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) for post-2020 climate action in order to meet Paris Agreement targets.
- The INDC is a non-binding national plan that emphasises climate change mitigation, including climate-related targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
- India submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2015.
India’s First Pledge
- India’s first pledge, also known as a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), had three primary targets.
- The first was to reduce the economy’s emissions intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) by 33-35 percent below 2005 levels.
- The second goal was to have non-fossil-based energy resources account for 40% of installed electric power by 2030.
- The third goal was to increase forest and tree cover by 2030 to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5-3 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e).
- The Paris Agreement requires countries to ‘update’ their pledges every five years in order to make larger commitments to reduce GHG emissions.
- India expressed its intention to intensify its climate action at the UNFCCC COP26 in Glasgow, UK in 2021 by presenting a 5-set of new targets (Panchamrit) for India’s climate action.
- These were: o India’s non-fossil fuel energy capacity will be increased to 500 gigatonnes (GW) by 2030.
- It will meet 50% of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2030.
- Total projected carbon emissions will be reduced by one billion tonnes between now and 2030.
- Its economy’s carbon intensity will be reduced to less than 45 percent.
- India will achieve its goal of net zero emissions by 2070.
- Three of the five targets were recently approved by the Union Cabinet.
- According to the revised climate action goals, India will o Achieve approximately 50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil-fuel-based (renewable and nuclear) energy resources by 2030.
- Reduce emissions intensity by 45 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.
- Contribute to India’s long-term goal of reaching “net zero” emissions by 2070.
Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers
Focus: GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy, Fiscal Policy, Taxation)
Why in News?
- The Labour Bureau has been compiling Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers every month on the basis of retail prices collected from 317 markets spread over 88 industrially important centres in the country.
- The All-India CPI-IW for July, 2022 increased by 0.7 points and stood at 129.9 (one hundred twenty nine point nine).
- On 1-month percentage change, it increased by 0.54 per cent with respect to previous month compared to an increase of 0.90 per cent recorded between corresponding months a year ago.
- Year-on-year inflation for the month stood at 5.78 per cent compared to 6.16 per cent for the previous month and 5.26 per cent during the corresponding month a year before.
- Similarly, Food inflation stood at 5.96 per cent against 6.73 per cent of the previous month and 4.91 per cent during the corresponding month a year ago.
What is Consumer Price Index (CPI)?
- Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures price changes from the perspective of a retail buyer.
- CPI is released by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
- Base Year for CPI is 2012 and the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) uses CPI data to control inflation.
- The CPI calculates the difference in the price of commodities and services such as food, medical care, education, electronics etc, which Indian consumers buy for use.
- The CPI has several sub-groups including food and beverages, fuel and light, housing and clothing, bedding and footwear.
- Four types of CPI are as follows:
- CPI for Industrial Workers (IW).
- CPI for Agricultural Labourer (AL).
- CPI for Rural Labourer (RL).
- CPI (Rural/Urban/Combined).
- Of these, CPI for Industrial Workers (IW), CPI for Agricultural Labourer (AL) and CPI for Rural Labourer (RL) are compiled by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
- CPI (Rural/Urban/Combined) is compiled by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.