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PIB Summaries 31 January 2022 | Legacy IAS

Contents

  1. Exports of Marine Products rise by 35% in 2020-2021
  2. Exports of Ready-To-Eat products rises by 24% in 2020-21
  3. India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022 approved

Exports of Marine Products Rise by 35% in 2020-2021

Context:

Exports of Marine Products registered a growth of 35% to more than 6 billion US Dollars during April-December 2021 compared to the same period in 2020.

Relevance:

GS-III: Industry and Infrastructure (Food Processing Industry, Changes in Industrial Policy and effects on Industrial Growth), GS-III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About the surge in export of Marine Products in 2021
  2. About India’s Fisheries Sector
  3. Steps taken to promote Export of Marine Products
    1. Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)
    2. Blue Revolution
    3. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

About the surge in export of Marine Products in 2021

  • Exports of Marine Products during April-December 2021 (USD 6.1 Billion) registered a growth of 12% when compared to April-December 2019 (USD 5.5 Billion), 38% when compared to April-December 2014 (USD 4.4 Billion) and 35% when compared to April-December 2020 (USD 4.5 Billion).
  • Top 5 export destinations in April-November 2021 (latest available, share% in bracket) are:
    • USA (44.5%),
    • China (15.3%),
    • Japan (6.2%),
    • Vietnam (4%) &
    • Thailand (3%).
  • Top Marine Products exported from India in the Marine-exports basket in FY2020-21 are:
    • Frozen shrimps (74% share in value terms of USD);
    • Frozen Fish (7%),
    • Others (6%) and
    • Frozen Squid (5%).

About India’s Fisheries Sector

  • India is the second-largest fish producer in the world with a total production of 13.7 million metric tonnes in 2018-19 of which 65 per cent was from the inland sector. China is at rank 1 with 60 million tonnes per annum (almost 5 times as much as India).
  • Fish & fish product exports emerged as the largest group in agricultural exports & in value terms accounted for Rs 47,620 crore in 2018-19.
  • Fisheries provide employment to more than 14.5 million people.

Steps taken to promote Export of Marine Products

Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)

  • The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was set up by the Marine Products Export Development Authority Act (MPEDA), 1972.
  • It functions under Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry and is headquartered in Kochi, Kerala.

Functions of the MPEDA

  • MPEDA is given the mandate to promote the marine products industry with special reference to exports from the country.
  • It is envisaged that this organization would take all actions to develop and augment the resources required for promoting the exports of “all varieties of fishery products known commercially as shrimp, prawn, lobster, crab, fish, shell-fish, other aquatic animals or plants or part thereof and any other products which the authority may, by notification in the Gazette of India, declare to be marine products for the purposes of (the) Act”.
  • The Act empowers MPEDA to regulate exports of marine products and take all measures required for ensuring sustained, quality seafood exports from the country.
  • MPEDA is given the authority to prescribe for itself any matters which the future might require for protecting and augmenting the seafood exports from the country.
  • It is also empowered to carry out inspection of marine products, its raw material, fixing standards, specifications, and training as well as take all necessary steps for marketing the seafood overseas.

Blue Revolution

  • Blue Revolution was launched in India during the seventh Five-year plan (1985-1990) when the Central Government sponsored the Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA). Subsequently, the Brackish Water Fish Farms Development Agency was set up to develop aquaculture.
  • The Blue Revolution has brought improvement in aquaculture by adopting new techniques of fish breeding, fish marketing, and fish export. Under the Blue Revolution programme, there had been a tremendous increase in the production of shrimp. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have developed shrimp in a big way. The Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh is known as the “shrimp capital of India”.
  • Blue Revolution means the adoption of a package programme to increase the production of fish and marine products. The objective of the blue revolution is:
    • To increase the overall fish production in a responsible and sustainable manner for economic prosperity
    • To modernize the fisheries with a special focus on new technologies
    • To ensure food and nutritional security
    • To generate employment and export earnings
    • To ensure inclusive development and empower fishers and aquaculture farmers

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) was launched in 2020 to bring about Blue Revolution through the sustainable development of the fisheries sector over a period of five years (2020-2025).
  • It is an umbrella scheme to develop the fisheries sector with a total outlay of Rs. 20050 crores. It has two components
    • The Central Sector Scheme (CS) component with a non-beneficiary-oriented scheme and a Beneficiary oriented scheme (Central Assistance for General Category – 40%; SC/ST/Women – 60%).
    • A Central Sponsored Scheme (CSS) component also with a non-beneficiary-oriented scheme and Beneficiary oriented scheme. The different break-ups of funding are: Central Assistance for Northeastern States – 90%, Other States – 60%; and UTs – 100%.
  • The areas expected to be covered by the PMMSY are:
    • Fish production
    • Fisheries productivity
    • Quality of fisheries and aquaculture sectors
    • Post-harvest infrastructure and management
    • Modernization of value chain
    • Welfare of the fishers and fish farmers
    • Fisheries management framework
  • The objectives of the PMMSY are:
    • Develop fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
    • Harness the potential of fisheries sector in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner
    • Efficient use of land and water resources to enhance fish production and productivity.
    • Modernize value chain considering post-harvest management and quality improvement.
    • Double fishers and fish farmers’ incomes
    • Generate employment in the fisheries sector.
    • Enhance fisheries sector’s contribution to overall agricultural Gross Value Added (GVA) and exports.
    • Provide social, economic and physical security to fish farmers and fishermen.
    • Develop a robust fisheries management and regulatory framework.

-Source: PIB


Exports of Ready-To-Eat products rises by 24% in 2020-21

Context:

India’s export of final consumer food products such as Ready to Eat (RTE), Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Serve (RTS) under the APEDA basket has registered a significant growth in the last decade (2011-21).

Relevance:

GS-III: Industry and Infrastructure (Food Processing Industry, Changes in Industrial Policy and effects on Industrial Growth), GS-III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About the growth in export of final consumer food products
  2. Reasons for the increase in exports of final consumer food products
  3. About APEDA

About the growth in export of final consumer food products

  • Since final food products are time saving and readily available, the demand for food items under the categories of RTE, RTC and RTS has increased manifold in recent years.
  • Food products under the Ready to Eat (RTE) category have registered a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 12 % in the last one decade.
  • The export of products under Ready to Eat (RTE), Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Serve (RTS) segment have registered an CAGR of 10.4 % from 2011-12 to 2020-21.
  • India exported final food products which includes RTE, RTC and RTS, worth USD 5.4 billion in the last three financial three years (2018-19 and 2020-2021). India exported more than $ 2.14 billion worth of final food products in 2020-21 alone.

More about RTE Exports

  • The products covered under RTE category, includes Biscuits & Confectionery, Jaggery, Breakfast Cereals, Wafers, Indian Sweets and Snacks, Pan Masala & Betal Nuts etc. The Biscuits and Confectionery and Indian Sweets and Snacks constitute a major share of 89% in the RTE export in 2020-21.
  • Notably more than 56% of RTE food products were exported to top 10 countries in 2020-21 with USA being the top importing country in four categories of RTE.
  • The major destination of RTE export as per 2020-21 data are:
    • U.S.A (18.73%),
    • U.A.E (8.64%),
    • Nepal (5%),
    • Canada (4.77%),
    • Sri Lanka (4.47%).

Reasons for the increase in exports of final consumer food products

  • The rise in export of agricultural and processed food products has been largely due to the various initiatives taken by APEDA such as organizing B2B exhibitions in different countries, exploring new potential markets through product specific and general marketing campaigns by active involvement of Indian Embassies.
  • APEDA has also taken several initiatives to promote geographical indications (GI) registered agricultural and processed food products in India by organizing virtual Buyer Seller Meets on agricultural and food products with the major importing countries across the world.
  • In order to ensure seamless quality certification of products to be exported, APEDA has recognized 220 labs across India to provide services of testing to a wide range of products and exporters.
  • APEDA also assists in upgradation and strengthening of recognized laboratories for export testing and residue monitoring plans. APEDA also provides assistance under the financial assistance schemes of infrastructure development, quality improvement and market development for boosting export of agricultural products.

About APEDA

  • The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act 1985.
  • It was set up by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry as the premier body of export promotion of fresh vegetables and fruits.
  • It provides the crucial interface between farmers, storehouses, packers, exporters, surface transport, ports, Railways, Airways, and all others engaged in export trade to the international market.
  • According to the 1985 act, the following functions have been assigned to APEDA:
    • Development of industries relating to the scheduled products for export by way of providing financial assistance or otherwise for undertaking surveys and feasibility studies, participation in enquiry capital through joint ventures and other reliefs and subsidy schemes;
    • Registration of persons as exporters of the scheduled products on payment of such fees as may be prescribed;
    • Fixing of standards and specifications for the scheduled products for the purpose of exports;
    • Carrying out inspection of meat and meat products in slaughter houses, processing plants, storage premises, conveyances or other places where such products are kept or handled for the purpose of ensuring the quality of such products;
    • Improving of packaging of the Scheduled products;
    • Improving of marketing of the Scheduled products outside India;
    • Promotion of export-oriented production and development of the Scheduled products;
    • Collection of statistics from the owners of factories or establishments engaged in the production, processing, packaging, marketing or export of the scheduled products or from such other persons as may be prescribed on any matter relating to the scheduled products and publication of the statistics so collected or of any portions thereof or extracts there from;
    • Training in various aspects of the industries connected with the scheduled products.

-Source: PIB


India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022 approved

Context:

The 2nd ASEAN Digital Ministers (ADGMIN) meeting with India resulted in the approval of the India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022.

Relevance:

GS-II: International Relations (Important International Groupings, India’s Neighbors, Foreign Policies and Agreements affecting India’s Interests)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  2. ASEAN Digital Ministers (ADGMIN) meeting 2022
  3. India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising Ten Countries in Southeast Asia.
  • In 1967 ASEAN was established with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by its founding fathers: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • ASEAN is headquartered in Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
  • 8th August is observed as ASEAN Day.
  • Chairmanship of ASEAN rotates annually, based on the alphabetical order of the English names of Member States.
  • ASEAN is the 3rd largest market in the world – larger than EU and North American markets.
  • A major partner of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN maintains a global network of alliances and dialogue partners and is considered by many as the central union for cooperation in Asia-Pacific.
  • Members of ASEAN
    1. Indonesia
    2. Malaysia
    3. Philippines
    4. Singapore
    5. Thailand
    6. Brunei
    7. Vietnam
    8. Laos
    9. Myanmar
    10. Cambodia

ASEAN’s Objectives:

  • To promote intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia.
  • To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations.
  • To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  • To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.

ASEAN Digital Ministers (ADGMIN) meeting 2022

  • The ADGMIN is an annual meeting of Telecom Ministers of 10 ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations) countries.
  • The second ADGMIN of 2022 involved discussion and deliberation on various matters relevant to strengthening regional digital cooperation in the spirit of digital inclusion and integration.
  • India emphasized that democratic systems and institutions are enabled and strengthened through Information and Communication Technologies through enhanced engagement between citizens and the state.
  • ICTs are important as they
    • promote free speech,
    • promote human rights
    • promote the free flow of information
    • expand citizens’ opportunities to participate in decision-making process and
    • have potential to transform lives of people living in rural areas.
  • Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) have also emerged as powerful tools to mitigate the effects of pandemic such as challenges posed to public health system and disturbances in the economic and social orders of the countries.
  • It was held that ICTs are foundations of the global economy.

India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022

  • The ADGMIN 2022 approved the India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022.
  • The India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan includes:
    • Developing a system to combat use of stolen and counterfeit mobile handsets
    • Developing a system for Wi-Fi access network interface for nationwide public internet
    • Setting up a system for capacity building and knowledge sharing in emerging areas in the field of information and communication technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), 5G, advanced satellite communication, cyber forensics, etc.
  • The conception of this Digital Work Plan initiative can be traced back to 2019 when the Telecom Ministry had launched a portal to help people in Delhi-NCR block and trace their stolen or lost mobile phones.
  • The ongoing and proposed projects in ICTs, will strengthen collaboration between India and ASEAN by leveraging complementary strengths of each other.

-Source: PIB

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