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PIB Summaries 31 May 2023


  1. Periodic Labour force Survey (PLFS)
  2. Statehood day of Goa

 Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

Focus: GS III: Indian Economy

Why in News?

According to the recent periodic labour force survey, the urban unemployment rate dipped further in the January to March 2023 quarter.

Key Points:

  • The unemployment rate in current weekly status (CWS) for persons of age 15 years and above in urban areas declined to 6.8% in the January to March 2023 quarter.
  • The urban labour force participation rate (LFPR) for all ages, however, inched up to a high of 38.1% in the fourth quarter of last fiscal from 37.9% in the October to December 2022 period.
  • The urban LFPR for persons above 15 years of age was even higher at 48.5% in the fourth quarter of FY23.

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Overview:

  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey was launched by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in April 2017.
  • The survey was initiated to address the need for more frequent and timely availability of labor force data.
  • To estimate key employment and unemployment indicators within a short time interval of three months specifically for urban areas using the “Current Weekly Status” (CWS) approach.
  • To estimate employment and unemployment indicators annually using both the “Usual Status” (ps+ss) and CWS approaches for both rural and urban areas.

The PLFS focuses on estimating the following indicators:

  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): It represents the percentage of individuals in the population who are part of the labor force, which includes those who are employed, seeking work, or available for work.
  • Worker Population Ratio (WPR): This indicator represents the percentage of employed individuals in the population.
  • Unemployment Rate (UR): The UR indicates the percentage of individuals who are unemployed among those in the labor force.
Current Weekly Status (CWS):
  • CWS refers to the activity status of individuals based on their activities during the preceding seven days before the survey.
Conducting Authority:
  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey is conducted by the National Sample Survey (NSO), which operates under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).

Types of Unemployment in India

  • Disguised Unemployment: This is a situation in which more people are employed than are required. It is mostly seen in India’s agricultural and unorganised sectors.
  • Seasonal unemployment: Unemployment that happens only during particular seasons of the year. In India, agricultural labourers rarely work throughout the year.
  • Structural Unemployment: This is a type of unemployment that occurs when there is a mismatch between the jobs available and the abilities of the available workers.
  • Cyclical unemployment: Unemployment that rises during recessions and falls with economic expansion. It is mostly a phenomenon of capitalist economies.
  • Frictional Unemployment:  It is also known as Search Unemployment, is the time lag between jobs when someone is looking for a new job or moving jobs.

Causes of Unemployment in India

  • Jobs in the capitalist world have become highly specialised but India’s education system does not provide the right training and specialisation needed for these jobs.
  • In India nearly half of the workforce is dependent on Agriculture – even though agriculture is underdeveloped in India and only provides seasonal employment.
  • Mobility of labour in India is low due to factors like language, religion, and climate.
  • The industrial development had adverse effects on cottage and small industries – as the cottage industries fall, many artisans become unemployed.
  • Constant increase in population has been a big problem and one of the main causes of unemployment.
  • Certain work is prohibited for specific castes in some areas and this also contributes to unemployment.

Statehood Day of Goa

Focus: GS II- Governance

Why in news?

The Prime Minister greeted the people of Goa on the occasion of their Statehood Day (30 May).

Key Points:

  • Goa is located on the southwestern coast of India within the region known as the Konkan, and geographically separated from the Deccan highlands by the Western Ghats.
  • Capital: Panji
  • Official Language: Konkani
  • Borders: It is surrounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast.
History of Goa as a Portuguese Colony
  • After Indian Independence Goa was the largest part of the Portuguese possession in India, the other territories being small enclaves.
  • The Portuguese colonised several parts of India in 1510 but by the end of the 19th century Portuguese colonies in India were limited to Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Anjediva Island.
  • Portuguese were the first ones to colonize parts of India and were the last to leave.
  • In 1961, India incorporated these territories after a liberation of Portugal’s Indian colonies.
  • The highest point of Goa is Sonsogor.
  • Goa’s seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal.
  • Most of Goa’s soil cover is made up of laterites.
Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks:
  • Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
  • Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary
  • Mollem National Park
Liberation of Goa
  • The Goa liberation movement, which sought to end Portuguese colonial rule in Goa, started off with small scale revolts, but reached its peak between 1940 to 1960, ending when India invaded Goa in 1961.
  • After the failure of diplomatic efforts with Portuguese, military operation code-named ‘Operation Vijay’ was conducted by Indian Navy, Airforce and Army and Goa was liberated on 19th December, 1961.
Operation Vijay
  • After the failure of diplomatic efforts with Portuguese, military operation code-named ‘Operation Vijay’ was conducted by Indian Navy, Airforce and Army and Goa was liberated on 19th December, 1961.
  • Operation Vijay began on December 17, 1961 and with a force of almost 30,000, the Indian attack overpowered the ill-prepared Portuguese 3,000-member army.
  • With minimal bloodshed, the attack was successful and was carried forward to retrieve the other Portuguese-controlled areas, Daman and Diu.
  • After just 3 days, on December 18, the Portuguese Governor General Vassalo da Silva gave up control of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu.
The Referendum: Road to Statehood

A referendum was held which offered the people of Goa, Daman and Diu two options:

  1. To merge Goa with Maharashtra; and Daman and Diu with Gujarat. Or
  2. To remain a Union Territory of India.

Goans rejected the merger with Maharashtra

  • Goa did not achieve full statehood in 1971 as was expected.
  • Following persistent demands; including a 1976 resolution by the Goa assembly demanding full statehood – Goa finally became a state on 30 May 1987.
  • Daman and Diu were separated from Goa and continue to be administered as the Union territory of Daman and Diu.

December 2023