Focus: GS-II Governance, Indian Polity, Prelims
Why in news?
- The Rajya Sabha was adjourned sine die on 23rd March 2020, ahead of the schedule, owing to the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19.
- In the Budget session that began on January 31, the Upper House passed only 12 Bills, six of which were passed on 23rd March 2020, the last day of the curtailed session.
- The six Bills include Finance Bill, 2020 which was passed without any discussion in both Houses of Parliament.
Details of the Session
- The Rajya Sabha clocked 76% productivity. Full and proper exercise of the right to discuss and debate would have resulted in 100% productivity as against the 76% that it turned out to be for this important Budget session -said the Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
- The Upper House also commemorated the Martyrdom Day of freedom fighters Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru for their supreme sacrifice for the country on 23rd March 1931.
Summoning and Termination of Parliament sessions
Summoning is the process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet and a sitting of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment, adjournment sine die, prorogation or dissolution.
- It is the process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet.
- It is the duty of the Indian President to summon each House of the Parliament such that the maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament is NOT more than six months.
- An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.
- Remember the time of reassembly is specified.
- Also, it only terminates a sitting and not a session of the House.
- This Power lies with the presiding officer of the House, i.e., Speaker / Chairman.
Adjournment Sine Die
- Adjournment sine die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period.
- This means, house is adjourned WITHOUT SPECIFYING a day for reassembly.
- The power of adjournment sine die also lies with the presiding officer.
Note: The presiding officer of a House can call a sitting of the House before the date or time to which it has been adjourned or at any time after the House has been adjourned sine die.
- Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution.
- Prorogation terminates both the sitting and session of the House.
- Usually, within a few days after the House is adjourned sine die by the presiding officer, the President issues a notification for the prorogation of the session.
- However, the President can also prorogue the House while in session.
Note: All pending notices (other than those for introducing bills) lapse on prorogation and fresh notices have to be given for the next session.
- A dissolution ends the life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after general elections are held.
- Rajya Sabha is NOT subject to dissolution, as it is a permanent house.
- Only the Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution.
- The dissolution of the Lok Sabha may take place in either of two ways:
- Automatic dissolution: On the expiry of its tenure – five years or the terms as extended during a national emergency.
- Order of President: If President is authorized by CoM, he can dissolve Lok Sabha, even before the end of the term. He may also dissolve Lok Sabha if CoM loses confidence and no party is able to form the government. Once the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completio