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What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats

Internal Security Challenges:

  1. Terrorism: Both cross-border and homegrown extremist activities, especially in regions like Jammu & Kashmir, Northeast, and Naxalite-affected areas, pose significant threats to India’s security.
  2. Cybersecurity Threats: With increasing digitalization, threats from cyberattacks, data breaches, and cyber-espionage have escalated.
  3. Communal and Ethnic Violence: Communal tensions and identity-based conflicts often erupt, causing loss of life and property.
  4. Drug Trafficking: The illicit drug trade, especially in border states like Punjab and the Northeast, has multifaceted implications, from health concerns to fuelling organized crime.
  5. Illegal Migration: Unregulated movements, especially in states like Assam, pose demographic challenges and sometimes security concerns.
  6. Left-Wing Extremism: Naxalism or Maoist insurgency affects several states, causing significant disturbances and loss of life.

Role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies:

  1. Intelligence Bureau (IB): As India’s premier domestic intelligence agency, IB gathers intelligence on internal threats, keeps an eye on political and social developments, and aids other investigative agencies.
  2. Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW): Although primarily an external intelligence agency, R&AW also plays a crucial role in counter-terrorism operations within the country, especially those with cross-border implications.
  3. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI): While it’s primarily an investigative agency, CBI plays a significant role in probing and acting against corruption, which indirectly bolsters internal security by ensuring integrity within the system.
  4. National Investigation Agency (NIA): Established post the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, NIA is responsible for investigating and prosecuting offenses affecting the sovereignty, security, and integrity of India. It has been instrumental in probing terror funding cases.
  5. Cyber Crime Cells: Under various central and state agencies, these cells are dedicated to tackling cyber threats, including hacking, financial fraud, and online radicalization.
  6. Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB): Tasked with combating drug trafficking and abuse of illegal substances, NCB plays a vital role in cutting off funding to organized crime and extremist activities.

The multifaceted internal security challenges faced by India necessitate a robust, coordinated approach by its intelligence and investigative agencies. By preempting threats, gathering actionable intelligence, and conducting thorough investigations, these agencies are vital in ensuring India’s safety and security.

March 2024