Which amongst the following provided a common factor for tribal insurrection in India in the 19th century?(2011)
a) Introduction of a new system of land revenue and taxation- of tribal products
b) Influence of foreign religious missionaries in tribal areas
c) Rise of a large number of money lenders, traders and revenue farmers as middlemen in tribal areas
d) The complete disruption of the old agrarian order of the tribal communities
Causes of Tribal Uprising
- The tribals’ mainstay were shifting agriculture, hunting, fishing and the use of forest produce.
- With the influx of non-tribals into the traditional regions of the tribals, the practice of settled agriculture was introduced. This led to a loss of land for the tribal population.
- The tribals were reduced to being landless agricultural labourers.
- The British introduced money lenders into the tribal areas which led to severe exploitation of the local tribals. They became bonded labourers under the new economic system.
- The tribal societies had a system of joint ownership of land which was replaced by the notion of private property.
- There were restrictions imposed on the use of forest produce, on shifting agriculture and on hunting practices. This led to the loss of livelihood for the tribals.
- Tribal society was traditionally egalitarian compared to mainstream society which was marked by caste and class distinctions. With the coming of the non-tribals or outsiders, the tribals came to be classified under the lowest rungs of society.
- A Forest Department was set up in 1864 by the government mainly to control the rich resources of Indian forests. The Government Forest Act of 1865 and the Indian Forest Act of 1878 established complete government monopoly over the forested land.
- The work of the Christian missionaries also led to social upheaval in tribal society and this was also resented by them.