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With reference to Ryotwari Settlement, consider the following statements :

With reference to Ryotwari Settlement, consider the following statements :

1. The rent was paid directly by the peasants to the Government.

2. The Government gave Pattas to the Ryots.

3. The lands were surveyed and assessed before being taxed.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(2012)

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) None

Answer: C

Ryotwari System

  • This system of land revenue was instituted in the late 18th century by Sir Thomas Munro, Governor of Madras in 1820.
  • This was practised in the Madras and Bombay areas, as well as Assam and Coorg provinces.
  • In this system, the peasants or cultivators were regarded as the owners of the land. They had ownership rights, could sell, mortgage or gift the land.
  • The taxes were directly collected by the government from the peasants.
  • The rates were 50% in dryland and 60% in the wetland.
  • The rates were high and unlike the Permanent System, they were open to being increased.
  • If they failed to pay the taxes, they were evicted by the government.
  • Ryot means peasant cultivators.
  • Here there were no middlemen as in the Zamindari system. But, since high taxes had to be paid only in cash (no option of paying in kind as before the British) the problem of moneylenders came into the show. They further burdened the peasants with heavy interests.

March 2024