• The Union Government proposes to update the National Population Register (NPR), which already has an electronic database of more than 119 crore residents, by verifying the details of all respondents through house ­to house enumeration, according to an official manual for conducting the fresh NPR exercise.
  • The NPR exercise has become controversial because the Citizenship Rules, 2003, link the Population Register to the creation of a National Register of Indian Citizens (NRIC) or National Register of Citizens
Asking the right questions The manual details how an enumerator should collect information from a citizen: The person may be assisted to arrive at the correct year of birth by stimulating her/his memory with reference to any historical event, such as war, flood, earthquake or change in regime. Examples: First World War (1914- 1918), Dandi March (1930), Quit India movement (1942). Independence (1947), war with China (1962). war with Pakistan (1965), liberation of Bangladesh (1971), Asian Games (1982), India's first win in the cricket world cup (1983), etc. • The year of birth/ age can also be ascertained with reference to the birth/ age of another person in the same household or in the neighbouring household or that of a well-known person in the village • If a woman is not aware of her age, you will have to further probe to estimate it. One way is to find the date of birth of her eldest living child and her age at the time she gave birth. Subtract her age at the time of birth of her child to get a fair estimate of her year of birth • If a woman is not able to tell her age at the time when the first child was bom, try to ascertain her age at the time of marriage and the interval between her marriage and the birth of her eldest child • If a woman does not know her age at marriage, try to find out the difference between her age and that of her husband whose year of birth may be known. Use this to record the woman's year of birth • If the respondent does not know the age of any member of the household and asking questions also does not help, you will have to estimate her/his age by using your best judgment


  • Brahmos is a cruise missile, with a capability to attain speeds of 2.8 Mach
  • Newer versions are aimed at flying in excess of 5 Mach – Hypersonic cruise missile


  • BRAHMOS is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation of India (DRDO) and the NPOM of Russia.
Image result for brahmos missile
  • Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
  • It is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.
  • However, India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.
  • Brahmos is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft, with a weight of 2.5 tonnes.
  • Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works in both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
  • It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e it does not require further guidance after launch.
  • Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missile currently operationally deployed with speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.
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