International Coffee Organization (ICO), in collaboration with the Coffee Board of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Government of Karnataka is hosting the 5th World Coffee Conference (WCC) at Bengaluru.
GS II: International Relations
Dimensions of the Article:
- International Coffee Organization (ICO)
- Coffee Cultivation: Key Aspects
International Coffee Organization (ICO)
Establishment and UN Affiliation:
- The International Coffee Organization (ICO) was established in 1963 under the auspices of the United Nations, following the ratification of the first International Coffee Agreement in 1962.
Unique Intergovernmental Organization:
- ICO holds the distinction of being the sole intergovernmental organization dedicated to coffee. It serves as a platform that brings together governments engaged in coffee exporting and importing.
- Currently, the ICO collectively represents a substantial share of the world’s coffee activities, with its member countries contributing to approximately 93% of global coffee production and accounting for approximately 63% of global coffee consumption.
- The primary mission of the ICO is to enhance and fortify the worldwide coffee sector while fostering its sustainable growth within a market-oriented framework. This approach is designed to benefit all stakeholders involved in the Global Coffee Value Chain (G-CVC).
- The ICO boasts a membership of 49 countries. These members include 42 coffee-exporting nations and 7 countries that are primarily coffee importers.
- India is an active member of the International Coffee Organization, participating in its initiatives and contributing to its mission and objectives.
Coffee Cultivation: Key Aspects
- The global coffee production is primarily dominated by two species, which are Coffea Arabica (commonly referred to as Arabica) and Coffea Canephora (often known as Robusta).
- Coffee cultivation is highly sensitive to climatic conditions. The following factors are crucial for successful coffee production:
- Climate: It thrives in regions characterized by a hot and humid climate.
- Temperature: The ideal temperature range for coffee growth typically spans from 15°C to 28°C.
- Rainfall: Adequate rainfall is essential, with an annual precipitation ranging between 150 to 250 cm.
- Soil: Coffee plants flourish in well-drained, loamy soil that is rich in humus and contains essential minerals such as iron and calcium.
- Shade Growth: It is a common practice to cultivate coffee under the canopy of shade-providing trees.
- Dry Weather during Ripening: Dry weather conditions during the ripening stage of coffee berries are imperative.
- Elevation: Coffee crops are usually grown on hill slopes, typically at elevations ranging from 600 to 1,600 meters above sea level.
Coffee-Producing States in India:
- Coffee cultivation in India is primarily concentrated in several states. These states include Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha. Among them, Karnataka holds a prominent position as the leading coffee producer, contributing to over 70% of the country’s total coffee output.
-Source: Indian Express