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About Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)


Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) succeed the incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps of previous centuries as the world’s light-source of choice.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
  2. Advantages of LED
  3. Applications of LEDs

About Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs):

Diode Basics:

  • An electronic component with two terminals: anode and cathode.
  • Primary function is to allow current flow in one direction.

LED (Light-Emitting Diode):

  • A semiconductor device emitting light with electric current.
  • Produces primary colors: red, green, and blue; combining LEDs creates various colors.

Advantages of LED:

Energy Efficiency:

  • Uses 75-80% less energy than incandescent bulbs.
  • Requires far less electricity to produce equivalent light.


  • Highly durable and resistant to shocks, vibrations, and temperature fluctuations.

Instant Illumination:

  • Provides immediate illumination without warm-up time, unlike incandescent bulbs.

Low Heat Generation:

  • Generates minimal heat, enhancing safety and energy efficiency.

Environmental Impact:

  • Lower environmental impact compared to incandescent bulbs.
  • Energy efficiency and longer lifespan contribute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and waste.

Applications of LEDs:

  • Smartphones and TVs: Used in smartphone displays and TV screens.
  • Household Lighting: Widely used for energy-efficient household lighting.
  • Signboards: Illuminates signboards for enhanced visibility.
  • Greenhouses: Feeds plants with light, supporting growth.
  • Barcode Scanners: Essential in barcode scanning technology.
  • Air Quality Monitoring: Utilized in devices for monitoring air quality.

-Source: The Hindu

February 2024