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About The Chandrayaan-3


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to retain the names of the Chandrayaan-2 lander (Vikram) and rover (Pragyan) for their Chandrayaan-3 equivalents as well.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Chandrayaan-3 Mission
  2. Objective and Composition
  3. Implementation Plan for the Mission

Chandrayaan-3 Mission:

  • Chandrayaan-3 is the third lunar exploration mission by ISRO.
  • It aims to demonstrate capabilities in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface.
    • Safe landing (through the lander Vikram – after Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space programme) and
    • Roving (through the rover Pragyan) on the lunar surface.
  • Unlike Chandrayaan-2, it will not have an orbiter and the propulsion module will act as a communications relay satellite.

Mission Modules:

Propulsion Module:
  • Includes the  Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) payload for studying Earth from lunar orbit using spectro-polarimetry.
Lander Module:

Consists of four payloads:

  • Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA) for studying the temporal evolution of electron density in the Lunar ionosphere.
  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) for measuring thermal conductivity and temperature on the lunar surface.
  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) for measuring seismic activity around the landing site.
  • Langmuir Probe (LP) for estimating plasma density and variations.
Rover Module:
  • Equipped with the  Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) payloads to analyze elemental composition near the landing site.

Launch and Rocket:

  • ISRO plans to launch Chandrayaan-3 in mid-July.
  • It will be launched aboard the LVM3 (formerly GSLV Mk-III) rocket from Sriharikota.

Objective and Composition:

  • Objective: Chandrayaan-3 is an ambitious mission by ISRO aimed at demonstrating critical technologies required for successful spacecraft landing on the moon’s south pole.
  • Composite Structure: The Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft is composed of three modules: propulsion, lander, and rover.
  • Scientific Instruments: The mission carries scientific instruments to study various aspects of the lunar environment, including the thermo-physical properties of the lunar regolith (surface material), lunar seismicity, lunar surface plasma environment, and elemental composition near the landing site.

Implementation Plan for the Mission:

Propulsion Module Deployment:

  • The mission will commence with the deployment of a propulsion module, which will transport the lander-rover configuration to a lunar orbit situated 100 kilometers above the lunar surface.

Lander Module Arrival:

  • Following a successful journey, the dedicated lander module named ‘Vikram’ will safely reach the moon’s surface.

Rover Deployment:

  • Once the lander module has achieved a secure landing, it will initiate the deployment of the rover module called ‘Pragyan’ onto the lunar surface.

In-Situ Chemical Analysis:

  • The rover, Pragyan, will undertake comprehensive in-situ chemical analysis of the lunar surface throughout its mobility phase.
  • It will conduct detailed examinations and investigations to gather valuable data and insights.

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023