Focus: GS III: Environmental Pollution and Degradation
Why in News?
The Ministry of Coal is considering a Comprehensive Scheme to promote Coal Gasification, aiming to achieve 100 Million Tonne (MT) coal Gasification by FY 2030.
Key Points of the Coal Gasification Scheme:
- The scheme aims to promote coal gasification as a sustainable and innovative solution.
- It encourages the participation of government PSUs and the private sector in coal gasification projects.
- Entities for the coal/lignite gasification scheme will be chosen through a competitive and transparent bidding process.
- Eligible government PSUs and private sector entities will receive budgetary support to undertake coal gasification projects.
- The initiative capitalizes on natural resources and demonstrates the financial and technical feasibility of coal gasification.
- It fosters innovation, investment, and sustainable development in the coal gasification sector.
- Coal gasification has the potential to reduce carbon emissions and contribute to global commitments for a greener future.
Coal gasification is a process that involves partially oxidizing coal to produce a fuel gas known as syngas.
Here are some key points about coal gasification:
- Coal is partially oxidized with air, oxygen, steam, or carbon dioxide to produce a fuel gas.
- This gas, called syngas, serves as an alternative to natural gas and can be used for energy production.
Syngas Composition and Uses:
- Syngas primarily consists of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O).
- Syngas can be used to produce a wide range of products, including fertilizers, fuels, solvents, and synthetic materials.
- Steel companies can reduce costs by using syngas from coal gasification plants instead of expensive imported coking coal in their manufacturing process.
- It is commonly used for electricity generation and in the production of chemical feedstocks.
- The hydrogen derived from coal gasification has various applications, such as ammonia production and supporting a hydrogen economy.
- The coal gasification process involves converting a high-quality energy source (coal) into a lower-quality state (gas) and requires significant energy input.
- As a result, the efficiency of the conversion process is relatively low.