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About The Global South


Recently, External Affairs Minister said that the disruptions caused by the corona virus pandemic and recent geopolitical conflicts call for a realignment of the world order. He said that the “Global South” can no longer be at the mercy of a few suppliers.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Understanding the Global South
  2. India’s Role in the Global South

Understanding the Global South

  • Emergence: Initially denoted countries excluded from industrialization.
  • Ideological Divide: Shaped by Cold War conflicts between capitalist and communist nations.
  • Encompassing Continents: Encompasses Asia, Africa, and South America.
  • Economic Contrast: Opposite of ‘Global North’, marked by economic disparity.

Challenges Faced by the Global South

Geopolitical Shifts and Emerging Challenges
  • Disruption Catalysts: Coronavirus pandemic and prolonged Ukraine-Russia War.
  • Resulting Challenges: Food and energy supply security, technology transfer, energy transition, climate change impact.
Securing Supply Chain
  • Supply Chain Concerns: Escalating energy costs and fertilizer prices.
  • Necessity of Supply Chain Security: Reevaluating essential commodity distribution to ensure availability in the Global South.
Ensuring Adequate Energy Supply
  • Energy Transition Hurdles: Sustainable energy transition entails technological and financial challenges.
  • Disproportionate Impact: Global South nations most affected due to financial constraints.
  • Sustainable Transition Imperative: Vital for socio-economic development across Global South nations.
Adapting to Climate Change
  • Disproportionate Impact: Historical polluters from Global North, adverse climate change effects on Global South.
  • Broader Climate Change Perspective: Need to consider climate change consequences holistically for Global South.
Advocating for Multilateralism
  • Genuine Multilateralism Demand: Call for equitable representation in global governance institutions.
  • UNSC Reform: Necessity to reform United Nations Security Council and other multilateral bodies for fair Global South representation.

India’s Role in the Global South

Historical Leadership and Global Influence
  • Non-Aligned Movement: India’s historical leadership in the Non-Aligned Movement underscores its role in global politics.
  • Economic and Geopolitical Clout: India’s growing economic and geopolitical influence drives its increased involvement in global geopolitics.
  • G-20 Presidency: Assumes G-20 Presidency in 2022-23, reflecting its greater global role.
Leader of the Global South
  • Voice of the Global South: As a leader of the Global South, India provides representation and a platform for the Global South Movement.
  • Proactive Engagement: Active participation in international forums on climate change, energy transition, and normative issues.
Championing Global South’s Interests
  • Alternative Narrative: India contributes to an alternative narrative in global geopolitics by voicing Global South concerns.
  • Climate Summits: Protecting Global South interests in climate financing, emission norms, and historical polluter responsibility.
Global Energy Transition and Security
  • Leading Energy Transition Discourses: Initiatives like International Solar Alliance and hydrogen-based fuel promotion.
  • Energy Security Emphasis: Prime Minister Modi’s call for energy market stability at the G-20 Summit in 2022.
Democratizing International Relations and UN Reform
  • Consistent Approach: India aligns with Global South demands for international relations democratization and United Nations reform.
  • Leadership and Narrative Shift: India’s leadership reshapes global geopolitics and provides a new perspective.

-Source: The Hindu

April 2024