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About The Mineral Security Partnership


India was recently inducted into the Mineral Security Partnership (MSP).


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Mineral Security Partnership
  2. What are Critical Minerals?
  3. Rare Earth Elements (REE)

Mineral Security Partnership:

  • The Mineral Security Partnership is an initiative launched by the United States and key partner countries in June 2022.
  • Its primary objective is to strengthen critical mineral supply chains.
  • The partnership aims to ensure that critical minerals, including cobalt, nickel, lithium, and the 17 “rare earth” minerals, are produced, processed, and recycled in a way that maximizes the economic development benefits for participating countries.
  • By focusing on these specific minerals, the partnership aims to address the challenges and risks associated with their supply chains, which are crucial for various industries and technologies.
  • The initiative seeks to enhance the resilience, sustainability, and security of critical mineral supply chains, promoting cooperation and collaboration among partner countries.

What are Critical Minerals?

  • Critical minerals are elements that are the building blocks of essential modern-day technologies, and are at risk of supply chain disruptions.
  • These minerals are now used everywhere from making mobile phones, computers to batteries, electric vehicles and green technologies like solar panels and wind turbines.
  • Based on their individual needs and strategic considerations, different countries create their own lists.
  • However, such lists mostly include graphite, lithium and cobalt, which are used for making EV batteries; rare earths that are used for making magnets and silicon which is a key mineral for making computer chips and solar panels.
  • Aerospace, communications and defence industries also rely on several such minerals as they are used in manufacturing fighter jets, drones, radio sets and other critical equipment.
Major Critical Minerals:
  • The major critical minerals are graphite, lithium, and cobalt.
  • These minerals are essential for the production of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, semiconductors, and high-end electronics.
  • They are also used in the manufacturing of fighter jets, drones, radio sets, and other critical equipment.
Top Producers of Critical Minerals:
  • The top producers of critical minerals globally are Chile, Indonesia, Congo, China, Australia, and South Africa.
  • These countries have significant reserves and production capacities for critical minerals.

Rare Earth Elements (REE):

  • Rare earth elements are a group of 17 elements in the periodic table.
  • They include the 15 lanthanides from lanthanum (atomic number 57) to lutetium (atomic number 71), as well as scandium (atomic number 21) and yttrium (atomic number 39).
  • Rare earth elements are important for various high-tech applications, including electronics, magnets, catalysts, batteries, and advanced technology products.

-Source: Indian express

December 2023