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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Context:

The US Food and Drug and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a shortage of Adderall, medication used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Relevance:

GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  2. About Adderall

About Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • ADHD is one the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, usually diagnosed at an early age and lasting into adulthood.
  • According to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children with ADHD might have trouble paying attention or controlling impulsive behaviours, and can be overly active.
  • Many adults remain undiagnosed, and symptoms can cause difficulty at work, home or relationships.
  • The CDC states that symptoms can appear different at older ages, for example, hyperactivity can appear as extreme restlessness.

About Adderall:

  • Adderall is the brand name for the formulation that consists of a combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine.
  • It is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, a sleep condition that causes daytime sleepiness.
  • Adderall belongs to the class of drugs known as stimulants and increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
  • For people diagnosed with ADHD, Adderall can help improve focus, concentration, impulse control and hyperactivity, because of its effects on the central nervous system.
  • It can also have the same effects on those who do not have ADHD.
  • Adderall is classified as a Schedule II drug in the US, which means that while it has positive medicinal effects, there is a large potential for abuse.
    • Over the past decade, there have been many reports about the growing use and misuses of stimulants like Adderall among students and athletes, who might find enhanced cognition or sports performance.

-Source: Indian Express


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