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Current Affairs 01 June 2023


  1. Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW)
  2. Evergreening of loans
  3. Provisions for university students to take maternity leave
  4. Threats from Plastic Recycling
  5. CITIIS 2.0 Program
  6. Purana Qila
  7. 2023 FW13

 Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW)


The World Meteorological Congress has approved a new greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring initiative called Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW).


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW):
  2. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)

Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW)

  • The Global Greenhouse Gas Watch (GGGW) is an initiative of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) focused on monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
  • GGGW aims to address information gaps by providing an integrated and operational framework that brings together space-based and surface-based observing systems, as well as modeling and data assimilation capabilities.
  • This initiative builds upon the WMO’s expertise in coordinating international collaboration for weather prediction and climate analysis, leveraging its long-standing activities in GHG monitoring and research under the guidance of the Global Atmosphere Watch, established in 1989.
  • GGGW takes a top-down approach to flux evaluation, utilizing existing capabilities in surface- and space-based observations and modeling to ensure the timely exchange of all observations and data.
Main components of GGGW include:
  • Comprehensive and sustained global observations of CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations, partial column amounts, total column amounts, vertical profiles, and fluxes. These observations support the monitoring of oceanic, meteorological, and terrestrial variables and are exchanged internationally as quickly as possible.
  • Prior estimates of GHG emissions based on activity data and process-based models.
  • Global high-resolution Earth system models that represent GHG cycles.
  • Data assimilation systems that combine observations with model calculations to generate more accurate products.

World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)

  • The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) responsible for meteorology, climate, operational hydrology, and related geophysical sciences.
  • It serves as the authoritative voice within the UN system regarding the state and behavior of the Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, climate patterns, and the distribution of water resources.
  • WMO plays a vital role in coordinating international efforts to monitor and assess atmospheric and climate systems, promoting research, facilitating data exchange, and providing weather and climate information for sustainable development.
  • The origins of WMO can be traced back to the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), established in 1873.
  • In 1950, WMO was officially established as the specialized agency of the UN for meteorology, operational hydrology, and related geophysical sciences.
  • Building upon the foundation laid by the IMO, WMO has expanded its scope and activities to address the evolving challenges in meteorology and climate science.
Headquarters and Membership:
  • The headquarters of WMO is located in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Currently, WMO has a membership of 193 countries and territories, representing virtually all nations across the globe. The membership reflects the global recognition of the importance of international cooperation in meteorology, climate, and hydrology.
Governance Structure:

The governance structure of WMO comprises several key bodies responsible for policy-making, decision-making, and the day-to-day operations of the organization:

World Meteorological Congress:

  • The World Meteorological Congress is the supreme body of WMO.
  • It convenes at least every four years and brings together representatives from all member countries.
  • The Congress establishes general policies, adopts regulations, and provides strategic guidance to WMO.

Executive Council:

  • The Executive Council consists of 37 members, including the President and Vice-Presidents.
  • It meets annually to implement policies and decisions made by the World Meteorological Congress.
  • The Executive Council oversees the day-to-day operations and management of WMO.

Technical Commissions and Regional Associations:

  • WMO operates through a network of technical commissions and regional associations.
  • Technical commissions focus on specific areas of meteorology, hydrology, and related disciplines.
  • Regional associations facilitate regional cooperation and the exchange of meteorological and hydrological information.


  • The Secretariat, headed by the Secretary-General, is responsible for the coordination and administration of WMO activities.
  • It supports the implementation of policies and decisions made by the World Meteorological Congress and Executive Council.
  • The Secretariat serves as the central hub for data exchange, research coordination, and capacity building initiatives.

Source: Down to Earth

Evergreening of loans


Recently, Reserve Bank of India Governor, while addressing bank board, raised concerns over banks using innovative methods for evergreening of loans.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Evergreening methods used by Banks, as highlighted by the RBI Governor
  2. Evergreening of loans
  3. Reasons for financial institutions engaging in the evergreening of loans
  4. Risks associated with evergreening of loans

Evergreening methods used by Banks, as highlighted by the RBI Governor:

  • Loan Exchange: Banks engage in evergreening by facilitating the exchange of loans or debt instruments between two lenders. This practice involves the sale and subsequent buyback of loans, allowing both lenders to artificially maintain the appearance of performing loans.
  • Structured Deals with Stressed Borrowers: Banks persuade financially stable borrowers to enter into structured agreements with borrowers experiencing financial difficulties. This strategy aims to conceal the financial stress faced by the struggling borrower. By involving reliable borrowers in these transactions, it creates a false sense of stability and financial health for the stressed party.
  • Use of Internal Accounts: Banks employ internal or office accounts to manipulate the repayment obligations of borrowers. By making adjustments within these accounts, banks can mask the true financial distress of the borrower. This approach provides temporary relief while disguising the underlying financial problems.
  • Renewal or Disbursement of New Loans: Banks engage in evergreening by renewing existing loans or disbursing new or additional loans to stressed borrowers or related entities just before the repayment date of previous loans. This tactic allows the borrower to meet its repayment obligations temporarily without addressing the root financial issues.

Evergreening of loans

  • Definition: Evergreening of loans is when financial institutions extend or renew existing loans for borrowers facing repayment difficulties.
  • Additional funds and modified terms: It involves providing borrowers with additional funds or rolling over the existing debt with altered terms or conditions.
  • Maintaining a healthy credit profile: The purpose is to create the impression that the borrower is making timely repayments and has a positive credit history.
  • Illusion of financial stability: By continuously obtaining new loans, borrowers can sustain the appearance of ongoing financial stability despite underlying repayment challenges.

Reasons for financial institutions engaging in the evergreening of loans:

Avoiding recognition of non-performing assets (NPA):

  • Financial institutions aim to prevent loans from being classified as NPAs on their balance sheets.
  • This helps them avoid the need to make higher provisions, which can impact their profitability.
  • Loans become NPAs when the interest or installment remains unpaid for more than 90 days.
  • Evergreening allows banks to delay the classification of loans as NPAs.

Maintaining a positive relationship with borrowers:

  • Financial institutions may engage in evergreening to maintain a favorable relationship with borrowers.
  • By extending additional credit or modifying loan terms, they can retain clients who might otherwise default on their loans.
  • This approach helps preserve customer loyalty and avoids potential reputational risks.

Risks associated with evergreening of loans:

  • Misleading financial health: Evergreening artificially inflates the quality of a financial institution’s loan portfolio, which can mislead investors, regulators, and the public about its true financial health.
  • Short-term solution, long-term instability: While evergreening may provide a temporary solution to prevent immediate defaults, it can lead to a cycle of increasing debt and further financial instability for both borrowers and lenders in the long run.
  • Systemic risks: Evergreening of loans can be problematic for the overall stability of the financial system. It masks the true extent of bad loans in an economy, creating systemic risks and distorting the assessment of creditworthiness.
  • Misgovernance and unethical practices: Evergreening often involves an unhealthy relationship between bankers and borrowers. It is a form of misgovernance where bad loans are made to appear good through additional lending to troubled borrowers.
  • Fund diversion and indirect evergreening: In some cases, borrowers engage in fund diversion by borrowing money from weak banks through related parties. Instead of using the funds for productive investments, they increase their debt levels, contributing to misallocation of resources and crowding-out effects.
  • Detection challenges: Evergreening activities are often overlooked and not easily detected, making it difficult to address the risks associated with this practice in a timely manner.

Source: Indian Express

Provisions for University Students to Take Maternity Leave


Allowing relief to a university student who was denied maternity leave, the Delhi High Court has said that citizens cannot be forced to choose between their right to education and their right to exercise reproductive autonomy.


GS II: Government policies and Intetrventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Maternity Leave for University Students: Delhi High Court’s Decision
  2. Constitutional Provisions and Rulings on Maternity Benefits
  3. Supreme Court’s Decisions on Reproductive Rights and Maternity Benefits
  4. Maternity Leave for MPhil/PhD Students and MEd Students

Maternity Leave for University Students: Delhi High Court’s Decision

Background and Request:

  • In the case of “Renuka v. University Grants Commission and Anr,” a student from Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, approached the Delhi High Court.
  • The student sought relaxation of attendance requirements to complete her Master of Education (MEd) course.
  • She requested a 59-day maternity leave, suggesting that it could be considered as part of “theory classes” to meet the 80% attendance criteria.

Equality and Reproductive Autonomy:

  • The court emphasized that citizens should not have to choose between their right to education and their right to reproductive autonomy.
  • It highlighted the contrast where men can become parents while pursuing higher education, whereas women must go through pre and post pregnancy care due to natural circumstances.

Court’s Limitations:

  • The court clarified that it cannot create a separate category for relaxation of attendance under Article 226 of the Constitution.
  • However, it acknowledged the need to balance attendance requirements with the interests of students seeking maternity leave.

Commitment to Equality:

  • The court stated that the Constitution aims to move away from narrow societal beliefs and promote equality.
  • It directed the university to reconsider the student’s application in light of the court’s observations.
  • The court suggested that the student’s 59 days of maternity leave could be considered against theory classes.
  • If the student missed any practical classes during her leave, the court suggested they could be rearranged as a special case.

Constitutional Provisions and Rulings on Maternity Benefits:

Amendment to the Concurrent List:

  • In September 1949, Dr BR Ambedkar proposed an amendment to replace the existing Entry 26 of the concurrent list in the Constitution.
  • The amended entry, adopted by the Constituent Assembly and now part of the Constitution, reads, “Welfare of labour, including conditions of work, provident funds, employers, liability, workmen’s compensation, invalidity and old age pensions, and maternity benefits.”

Article 42 – Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSPs):

  • Article 42 of the Constitution falls under the Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • It states that the State has the responsibility to ensure just and humane working conditions and provide maternity relief.

Court’s Reliance on Previous Rulings:

  • The court also considered multiple rulings from higher courts on reproductive rights.
  • These rulings likely played a role in shaping the court’s interpretation and decision regarding the student’s maternity leave case.

Supreme Court’s Decisions on Reproductive Rights and Maternity Benefits:

“Suchita Srivastava v. Chandigarh Admn” (2009):

  • The Supreme Court held that a woman’s reproductive choices are inherent to her right to privacy, dignity, and bodily integrity, protected under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Chief Justice KG Balakrishnan stated that a woman’s right to make reproductive choices is a dimension of personal liberty.
  • The court emphasized that there should be no restrictions on the exercise of reproductive choices, respecting a woman’s right to privacy, dignity, and bodily integrity.
  • Reproductive rights include a woman’s entitlement to carry a pregnancy to full term, give birth, and raise children.

“KS Puttaswamy v. Union of India” (2017):

  • The Supreme Court ruled that the state must protect citizens’ ability to make decisions that facilitate the fullest sense of life.
  • Article 21’s protection of life extends beyond physical integrity and encompasses one’s overall well-being and fulfillment of life.

“Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India”:

  • While considering workmen’s rights, the Supreme Court held that the right to live with human dignity under Article 21 is derived from the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSPs).
  • This right includes the protection of workers’ health, the well-being of children, educational facilities, just and humane working conditions, and maternity relief.

University Grants Commission (UGC) Regulations and Circular:

  • The UGC Regulations of 2016 and the 2021 circular issued by the UGC include provisions for granting maternity or childcare leave to women candidates.

Maternity Leave for MPhil/PhD Students and MEd Students:

Maternity Leave for MPhil/PhD Students:

  • In 2016, the University Grants Commission (UGC) introduced the “Minimum Standards and Procedure for Award of MPhil/PhD Degrees Regulations.”
  • Under these regulations, women candidates enrolled in MPhil or PhD courses were granted maternity or childcare leave once during the entire duration of their course, for up to 240 days.

Maternity Leave for Other Courses:

  • In 2021, the UGC issued a circular that amended the UGC Regulations of 2016.
  • The circular provided maternity or childcare leave to “women students” enrolled in MPhil or PhD courses for up to 240 days.
  • It also urged Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to establish their own rules and norms for granting maternity leave to women students and provide necessary relaxations or exemptions related to attendance, exam forms, or any other facilities.

Court’s Decision on MEd Course:

  • In the specific case before the court, the petitioner relied on the 2021 circular for claiming maternity leave during her MEd course.
  • However, the court rejected the petitioner’s reliance on the circular, stating that it does not directly apply to the facts of the present case.
  • The court clarified that MEd courses are governed by the provisions of the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993, and the National Council for Teacher Education (Recognition Norms and Procedure) Regulations, 2014.
  • These regulations do not include specific provisions for students to take maternity leave.

Maternity Leave for MEd Students:

  • The National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993, was established to coordinate the development of the teacher education system in India.
  • The Act, along with the 2014 regulations, governs teacher education and the role of the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE).
  • However, neither the Act nor the regulations provide specific provisions for students enrolled in MEd courses to take maternity leave.

Source: Indian Express

Threats from Plastic Recycling


At the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiation Committee Meeting in Paris, a recent report titled “Forever Toxic: The science on health threats from plastic recycling,” published by Greenpeace Philippines, challenges the widely held belief that recycling is the ultimate solution to plastic pollution.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Plastic Pollution
  2. Key Findings of the Report on Plastic Pollution
  3. Recommendations for Addressing Plastic Pollution

Plastic Pollution

Plastic waste is a persistent environmental issue due to its non-biodegradable nature, unlike biodegradable waste such as paper, food peels, and leaves. This waste remains in the environment for extended periods, sometimes hundreds or even thousands of years.

Major Forms of Polluting Plastic Waste


  • Size: Small plastic pieces measuring less than five millimeters.
  • Examples: Microbeads (solid particles under one millimeter) found in cosmetics and personal care products, industrial scrubbers, microfibers used in textiles, and virgin resin pellets utilized in plastic manufacturing.
  • Formation: Large plastic pieces that are not recycled break down into microplastics through sun exposure and physical wear.

Single-use plastic:

  • Definition: Disposable materials intended for one-time use before disposal or recycling.
  • Examples: Plastic bags, water bottles, soda bottles, straws, plastic plates, cups, most food packaging, and coffee stirrers are all common sources of single-use plastic.

Key Findings of the Report on Plastic Pollution

Recycled plastics often contain higher levels of harmful chemicals:

  • Chemicals such as toxic flame retardants, benzene, carcinogens, environmental pollutants like brominated and chlorinated dioxins, and numerous endocrine disruptors are found in higher concentrations in recycled plastics.
  • These chemicals can cause changes to the body’s natural hormone levels.

Plastics harbor thousands of chemicals, many of which are hazardous:

  • Plastics contain more than 13,000 chemicals, and approximately 3,200 of them are known to be hazardous to human health.

Toxic chemical accumulation through various pathways:

  • Direct contamination from toxic chemicals present in virgin plastic.
  • Substances like plastic containers for pesticides and cleaning solvents that enter the recycling chain and contaminate plastic.
  • The recycling process itself, particularly when plastics are heated.

Increased risk of fires at recycling facilities:

  • The accumulation of plastic stockpiles has led to an increased risk of large fires, particularly in facilities handling e-waste plastics with used batteries.
  • A survey conducted in the United States and Canada in 2022 reported a record 390 fires in plastic recycling and waste facilities.
  • Large fires have also been reported in various countries, including Australia, Canada, Ghana, Russia, Southern Taiwan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and different states in the United States (Florida, Indiana, North Carolina) in the 12 months leading up to April 2023.

Plastic production set to triple, while recycling rates remain low:

  • Plastic production is projected to triple by 2060, with minimal growth in recycling rates anticipated.
  • Since the 1950s, approximately 8 billion tonnes of plastic have been produced.
  • Only a small proportion (9%) of plastics are recycled, and those that are recycled often contain higher concentrations of toxic chemicals, amplifying their potential harm to human, animal, and environmental health.

Disproportionate impact on marginalized communities:

  • Plastic production, disposal, and incineration facilities are predominantly located in low-income, marginalized communities worldwide.
  • These communities experience higher rates of cancer, lung disease, and adverse birth outcomes due to their exposure to the toxic chemicals associated with plastic pollution.

Recommendations for Addressing Plastic Pollution

Implement deep policies and market shifts:

  • Countries and companies should adopt comprehensive policies and market shifts that utilize existing technologies to reduce global plastic pollution by 80% by 2040.
  • These measures should aim to transition towards a circular economy, where plastics are eliminated from the system.

Reduce plastic production:

  • The most effective solution to ending plastic pollution is to significantly decrease plastic production.
  • There is a need for a substantial reduction in the overall amount of plastic being produced worldwide.

Establish a Global Plastics Treaty:

  • An ambitious, legally binding Global Plastics Treaty should be developed to facilitate a just transition away from plastic dependence.
  • This treaty should accelerate efforts to address plastic pollution and provide the necessary conditions for its reduction.

Promote safer and toxics-free materials:

  • The Global Plastics Treaty should promote the use of safer materials that are free from harmful toxins.
  • Emphasizing the adoption of these materials will contribute to reducing the negative impact of plastics on human and planetary health.

Encourage reuse-based, zero-waste economies:

  • The treaty should support the transition towards reuse-based economies and zero-waste practices.
  • This approach promotes the reuse of materials and minimizes resource consumption, thereby reducing plastic waste.
  • Generate new jobs and support affected communities:
  • The transition to safer and more sustainable practices should create new job opportunities.
  • It is essential to protect workers and affected communities throughout the plastics supply and waste chains during this transition process.

Source: Down to Earth

CITIIS 2.0 Program


Recently, The Union government approved the second phase of the City Investments to Innovate, Integrate and Sustain (CITIIS) project, a programme under the ambit of the Smart Cities Mission, which aims to promote integrated waste management and climate-oriented reform actions.


GS III: Infrastructure

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About CITIIS Program
  2. CITIIS 2.0 Program
  3. What is the Smart Cities Mission?

About CITIIS Program:

  • The CITIIS (Cities Investments to Innovate Integrate and Sustain) Challenge was launched in partnership with AFD and the European Union.
  • It aimed to extend a loan of EUR 100 million for the implementation of innovative projects selected through an All-India Challenge in sectors like sustainable mobility, public open spaces, urban governance & ICT, and social and organizational innovation in low-income settlements.
  • The program was launched on July 9, 2018, and completed activities such as preparatory workshops, proposal submission by cities, evaluation of proposals, and selection of 12 projects in a record time.
  • Currently, the 12 projects are being implemented in cities like Agartala, Amaravati, Amritsar, Bhubaneshwar, Chennai, Dehradun, Hubbali-Dharwad, Kochi, Puducherry, Surat, Ujjain, and Visakhapatnam.

CITIIS 2.0 Program:

  • The program aims to support selected projects that promote circular economy, integrated waste management at the city level, climate-oriented reform actions at the state level, and institutional strengthening and knowledge dissemination at the national level.

Duration and Partnerships:

  • The program will span over four years, from 2023 to 2027.
  • It is conceived and will be implemented in partnership with the French Development Agency (AFD), Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), the European Union (EU), and the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA).


  • The funding for CITIIS 2.0 includes a loan of ₹1,760 crore split equally between AFD and KfW.
  • Additionally, there is a technical assistance grant of ₹106 crore from the European Union.

Components of CITIIS 2.0:

CITIIS 2.0 comprises three major components:

  • Financial and technical support for developing projects focused on building climate resilience, adaptation, and mitigation in up to 18 smart cities.
  • Interventions at the central, state, and city levels to further climate governance.
  • Promoting circular economy with a focus on integrated waste management at the city level.

What is the Smart Cities Mission?

  • The Smart Cities Mission is an initiative of the Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry that was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on June 25, 2015.
  • Cities across the country were asked to submit proposals for projects to improve municipal services and to make their jurisdictions more liveable.
  • Between January 2016 and June 2018 (when the last city, Shillong, was chosen), the Ministry selected 100 cities for the Mission over five rounds.
  • The projects were supposed to be completed within five years of the selection of the city, but in 2021 the Ministry changed the deadline for all cities to June 2023, which was earlier the deadline for Shillong alone.
What kinds of projects were proposed?
  • After the Ministry gave broad guidelines to the participating cities, the project proposals ranged from making certain stretches of roads more accessible and pedestrian-friendly to more capital-intensive ones like laying water pipelines and constructing sewage treatment plants.
  • All 100 cities have also constructed Integrated Command and Control Centres to monitor all security, emergency and civic services.
  •  During the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic, these centres were converted into emergency response units by many of the cities.

Source: The Hindu

Purana Qila


A recent round of excavations at the site of Delhi’s Purana Qila or Old Fort has uncovered evidence of the continuous history of the city since the pre-Mauryan era.


GS I: History

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Purana Qila
  2. Architecture

Purana Qila

Location and Historical Significance:
  • Purana Qila is situated in the southeastern part of present-day New Delhi.
  • It is one of the oldest forts in Delhi and was constructed on the banks of the Yamuna River.
  • The construction of the current citadel began during the reign of Humayun and was completed by Sher Shah Suri, also known as “The Lion King.”
  • The design of the Qila was inspired by the Jama Masjid, which was established 15 years prior to the reconstruction of the fort.


  • Purana Qila has a rectangular shape and covers an area of 1.5 kilometers.
  • A notable feature of the fort is its three gates, showcasing a harmonious blend of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles:
    • Bara Darwaza or the Big Gate, facing west.
    • Humayun Gate, facing south.
    • Talaqqi Gate, often referred to as the forbidden gate.
  • All the gates are two-storeyed and have large semi-circular bastions on either side.
  • The bastions are evenly spaced, except on the westward wall, where they are placed 73 meters apart.
  • The eastern and western walls of the fort are the tallest and were designed to protect the kings residing within.
  • The walls surrounding the fort are 0.33 meters thick and supported by bastions.

Source: The Hindu

2023 FW13


Astronomers have recently discovered a ‘quasi-moon’ called ‘2023 FW13’ that orbits the Earth but is actually gravitationally bound by the Sun.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About 2023 FW13
  2. What are quasi-moons?

About 2023 FW13:

  • Designation: Asteroid 2023 FW13 has been classified as a quasi-satellite or quasi-moon.
  • Rarity: It is one of the few known quasi-moons or satellites in our solar system.
  • Discovery: The asteroid was identified by experts using the Pan-STARRS telescope located on Hawaii’s Haleakala volcano.
  • Long-duration: It has been in Earth’s vicinity since 100 BC and is projected to continue circling our planet for at least another 1,500 years, until AD 3700.
  • Synchronized orbit: The newfound asteroid, 2023 FW13, follows an orbit around the sun that is in sync with Earth’s orbit.
  • Diameter: Preliminary estimates suggest that its diameter ranges from 10 to 20 meters.
  • Quasi-satellite status: Although it is not gravitationally bound to Earth like our Moon, its unusual orbit causes it to occasionally circle our planet, earning it the designation of a quasi-satellite or quasi-moon.
  • Proximity to Earth: At its closest point in the slightly elliptical orbit around Earth, the asteroid comes within approximately 223,693 miles (360,000 km) of our planet.

What are quasi-moons?

  • Quasi-moons are objects that exhibit characteristics similar to moons but are not true natural satellites of a planet.
  • They are typically small celestial bodies, such as asteroids or comets, that temporarily enter into a gravitational relationship with a larger planet.
  • Quasi-moons follow complex and irregular orbits around the planet, often influenced by the gravitational pull of both the planet and the Sun.
  • These objects can stay in the vicinity of the planet for extended periods, sometimes resembling the motion of a moon, but eventually continue on their own trajectory.
  • Quasi-moons provide valuable opportunities for scientific study and offer insights into the dynamics of celestial bodies in our solar system.

Source: The Hindu

December 2023