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Current Affairs 03 June 2023


  1. Sedition Law can be Retained but with Safeguards: Law Commission
  2. Global Slavery Index 2023
  3. Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)
  4. Higgs Boson
  5. Feasibility of Salt Cavern-Based Strategic Oil Reserves in Rajasthan
  6. Purchasing Managers Index
  7. Agni-1 Missile
  8. GOBARdhan Scheme

Sedition Law Can Be Retained But With Safeguards: Law Commission


The Law Commission, in its 22nd report, has urged that the sedition law needs to be retained but certain amendments should be made for greater clarity regarding its usage.


GS III: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Sedition?
  2. About Sedition law
  3. Criticism of Sedition

What is Sedition?

  • Sedition, which falls under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, is defined as any action that brings or attempts to bring hatred or contempt towards the government of India and has been illegal in India since 1870.

Historical background of Sedition laws

  • Sedition as a concept comes from Elizabethan England, where if you criticised the king and were fomenting a rebellion, it was a crime against the state.
  • When they ruled India, the British feared Wahhabi rebellion. They brought the [sedition] law in, and it was used against our freedom fighters as well.
  • We must remember that both Mahatma Gandhi and [Bal Gangadhar] Tilak were tried under this law and sentenced.
  • Government didn’t remove it because every administrator has this thought that dissent is okay, but beyond a certain point it gets dangerous and an administration must have the means to control it.
  • Previously policemen were much more independent. But since Indian independence, the independence of the police has also been severely compromised. So, any local leader can almost bully a policeman into registering a case.

About Sedition law

  • The law was originally drafted by Thomas Macaulay. Since its introduction in 1870, meaning of the term, as well as its ambit, has changed significantly.
  • Sedition is a cognisable, non-compoundable, and non-bailable offence, under which sentencing can be between three years to imprisonment for life.

About Section 124A of Indian Penal Code (IPC)

  • The Indian Penal Code in Section 124A lays down the offence:
  • “Whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment which may extend to three years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.”
  • A person charged under this law can’t apply for a government job. They have to live without their passport and must present themselves in the court as and when required.

Criticism of Sedition

  • Colonial Era law: It is a colonial relic and a preventive provision that should only be read as an emergency measure.
  • Right to Freedom of expression: Use of Section 124A by the government might go beyond the reasonable restrictions provided under fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression as per Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • Democratic foundation: Dissent and criticism of the government are essential ingredients of robust public debate in a vibrant democracy and therefore, should not be constructed as sedition. The sedition law is being misused as a tool to persecute political dissent.
  • Lower Conviction Rate: Though police are charging more people with sedition, few cases actually result in a conviction. Since 2016, only four sedition cases have seen a conviction in court which indicates that sedition as an offence has no solid legal grounding in India.
  • Vague provision of sedition laws: The terms used under Section 124A like ‘disaffection’ are vague and subject to different interpretation to the whims and fancies of the investigating officers.
  • Other legal measure for offences against the state: Indian Penal Code and Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (1967), have provisions that penalize “disrupting the public order” or “overthrowing the government with violence and illegal means”. These are sufficient for protecting the national integrity. o Similarly, the Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act is also there for offences against the state.
  • Perception of law: Globally, sedition is increasingly viewed as a draconian law and was revoked in the United Kingdom in 2010. In Australia, following the recommendations of the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) the term sedition was removed.

The Problem of Sedition being constitutional

  • The law of sedition was not struck down by the Supreme Court in 1962 as unconstitutional even though sedition, as defined in Section 124A of the IPC, clearly violates Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution which confers the Fundamental Right of freedom of speech and expression, the most valuable right of free citizens of a free country.
  • Further, this section does not get protection under Article 19(2) on the ground of reasonable restriction.
  • It may be mentioned in this context that sedition as a reasonable restriction, though included in the draft Article 19 was deleted when that Article was finally adopted by the Constituent Assembly. It clearly shows that the Constitution makers did not consider sedition as a reasonable restriction.
  • However, the Supreme Court was not swayed by the decision of the Constituent Assembly. It took advantage of the words ‘in the interest of public order’ used in Article 19(2) and held that the offence of sedition arises when seditious utterances can lead to disorder or violence.
  • This act of reading down Section 124A brought it clearly under Article 19(2) and saved the law of sedition. Otherwise, sedition would have had to be struck down as unconstitutional.

-Source: The Hindu

Global Slavery Index 2023


According to the recently published ‘Global Slavery Index 2023’ by the Walk Free Foundation, there has been a significant rise in the global prevalence of modern slavery. The report reveals that the number of individuals living in these exploitative conditions has reached 50 million, marking a concerning increase of 25% over the past five years.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Details
  2. Modern Slavery
  3. Major Findings of Global Slavery Index 2023
  4. Contributing Factors and Challenges
  5. Recommendations


  • The report highlights the notable contribution of G20 nations in intensifying the crisis of modern slavery, primarily through their trade activities and global supply chains.
  • Among the G20 countries, India, China, Russia, Indonesia, Turkey, and the U.S. stand out as having the highest number of individuals subjected to forced labor.

Modern Slavery

  • Definition: Modern slavery includes forced labour, forced marriage, debt bondage, commercial sexual exploitation, human trafficking, slavery-like practices, and the sale and exploitation of children.
  • Consequences: Modern slavery has severe impacts on individuals, communities, and societies.
  • Human Rights Violation: It violates human rights, undermines human dignity, and erodes social cohesion.
  • Economic Impact: It hampers economic development, perpetuates inequality, and fuels corruption.
  • Threat to Security: Modern slavery poses a threat to global security and stability by contributing to conflict, terrorism, and organized crime.

Major Findings of Global Slavery Index 2023

  • Global Estimate: The report estimates that around 50 million people were living in modern slavery in 2021, a significant increase of 10 million since 2016.
  • Prevalence: The prevalence of modern slavery is approximately one in every 160 people worldwide.
  • Country Rankings: The index ranks 160 countries based on their estimated prevalence of modern slavery per 1,000 people.
  • Highest Prevalence: North Korea, Eritrea, and Mauritania are identified as countries with the highest prevalence of modern slavery, where it is widespread and often state-sponsored.
  • Lowest Prevalence: Switzerland, Norway, and Germany are ranked among the countries with the lowest prevalence of modern slavery, indicating strong governance and effective responses to combat it.
  • Asia and the Pacific: This region has the highest number of people in modern slavery, with an estimated 29.3 million individuals affected.
  • India’s Prevalence: India is highlighted with a prevalence score of 8, indicating a significant proportion of the population living in modern slavery per thousand people.

Contributing Factors and Challenges

Contributing Factors:
  • Climate Change and Environmental Factors: The report identifies climate change as a contributing factor to the rise of modern slavery, along with other environmental factors. Displacement and resource scarcity increase vulnerability to exploitation.
  • Armed Conflict: Ongoing armed conflicts create conditions conducive to modern slavery, with armed groups and militias exploiting vulnerable populations.
  • Weak Governance: Countries with weak governance structures and inadequate enforcement of labor laws are more susceptible to modern slavery.
  • Health Emergencies: The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing vulnerabilities, disrupted economies, and worsened working conditions, leading to an increase in modern slavery.
Role of G20 Nations:
  • G20 Contribution: G20 nations account for over half of all people living in modern slavery. Importing products worth billions of dollars from countries with weak worker protection contributes to forced labor conditions.
  • Importation of High-Risk Products: Certain products, such as electronics, textiles, palm oil, and solar panels, are associated with forced labor and human trafficking. G20 countries import significant amounts of these high-risk goods.
Global Supply Chains:
  • Complex Supply Chains: Global supply chains, involving multiple stages from sourcing to transportation, are interconnected with forced labor. Lack of transparency makes it difficult to identify and address instances of modern slavery.
  • High-Risk Products: The importation of textiles and apparel goods by G20 countries exposes them to forced labor risks.
Assessment Methodology:
  • Vulnerability Factors: The index assesses nations’ vulnerability to modern slavery based on factors like political instability, inequality, lack of basic needs, criminal justice mechanisms, internal conflicts, and displacement.
  • Data Sources: The report relies on data from reputable organizations such as the International Labour Organisation (ILO), Walk Free, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Textiles Industry:
  • Exploitative Conditions: The textiles industry is highlighted as a significant contributor to forced labor. Issues include forced and unpaid work, unsafe conditions, low wages, lack of benefits, and debt bondage.
  • Sumangali Scheme: The report cites the Sumangali scheme in Tamil Nadu as an example of exploitative conditions in spinning mills, particularly affecting women and girls.


Strengthen Measures and Legislation:

  • The Global Slavery Index recommends the implementation of more robust measures and legislation to prevent governments and businesses from engaging in the sourcing of goods and services associated with modern slavery.
  • This includes enacting stricter regulations and enforcing them effectively to hold accountable those involved in exploitative practices.

Integrate Anti-Slavery Measures into Climate Change Sustainability Plans:

  • The report suggests incorporating anti-slavery measures into plans addressing climate change sustainability.
  • This involves recognizing the connection between climate change and modern slavery, and taking proactive steps to address vulnerabilities created by climate change while ensuring that efforts to combat climate change do not contribute to forced labor and exploitation.

Provide Education to Children:

  • It is recommended to prioritize education for children, particularly those in vulnerable communities, as a means to prevent and protect against modern slavery.
  • By ensuring accessible and quality education, children can acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to recognize and avoid exploitative situations.

Tighten Regulations on Child Marriage:

  • The report emphasizes the importance of tightening regulations around child marriage, which is a form of modern slavery affecting numerous girls globally.
  • This includes raising the minimum age of marriage, enforcing penalties for those involved, and providing support for survivors of child marriage.

Ensure Transparency in Value Chains:

  • Promoting transparency and accountability in global value chains is essential to identify and address instances of modern slavery.
  • The report recommends measures such as supply chain audits, certification programs, and public reporting requirements to encourage businesses to take responsibility for their supply chains and eliminate forced labor practices.

-Source: The Hindu

Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)


Recently, India has expressed its reservations regarding the global mandates for Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) with a target year of 2050, asserting that it is “too early.”


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. India’s stance on Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) mandates is characterized by several key points
  2. Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)
  3. Challenges Pertaining to Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)

India’s stance on Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) mandates is characterized by several key points

  • National Strategy: India believes that each country should have the freedom to develop its own strategy and approach in accordance with its national plans. This acknowledges the importance of considering unique circumstances, priorities, and capabilities when addressing sustainability goals in the aviation sector.
  • Support from ICAO: India has sought support from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in its efforts to achieve carbon net-zero goals while also addressing other important aspects of aviation, such as meeting the increasing demands and expectations of passengers.
  • SAF Production and Availability: India emphasizes the importance of ensuring the production, certification, and availability of Sustainable Aviation Fuel before imposing volumetric mandates. This aligns with the ideology of the Low-Carbon Sustainable Aviation Fuel Technology Roadmap (LTAG), which emphasizes the need for a comprehensive and feasible approach to SAF implementation.
  • Participation in International Initiatives: India intends to actively participate in ICAO’s Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and the LTAG from 2027. This demonstrates India’s commitment to international collaborations and efforts to address environmental challenges in the aviation industry.

Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF):

  • SAF, also known as Bio-Jet Fuel, is produced using domestically developed methods that utilize cooking oil and oil-rich seeds from plants.
  • The quality and compliance of SAF are ensured through rigorous testing at the US Federal Aviation Administration Clearinghouse for ASTM D4054 certification from ASTM International.
  • ASTM certification evaluates products and materials against relevant standards, promoting quality, safety, and reliability in various industries.
Creation of SAF by CSIR-IIP:
  • The CSIR-IIP (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Petroleum) has successfully created fuel using different materials, including non-edible and edible oils, as well as used cooking oil.
  • Various sources have been utilized, such as palm stearin, sapium oil, palm fatty acid distillates, algae oil, karanja, and jatropha.
Benefits and Applications of SAF:
  • Scaling up SAF production and utilization in India offers multiple advantages:
    • Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
    • Improving air quality
    • Enhancing energy security
    • Creating job opportunities in the renewable energy sector
    • Promoting sustainable development
  • SAF helps the aviation industry meet environmental targets and contributes to global efforts against climate change.
  • It can be blended with regular jet fuel and used together, offering benefits such as:
  • Lower sulfur content compared to traditional fuel, reducing air pollution
  • Support for India’s goal of achieving Net Zero emissions.

Challenges Pertaining to Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF):

Cost Differential:

  • The production processes for SAF, such as biomass or waste oil conversion, are currently more expensive compared to traditional jet fuel.
  • This economic barrier makes it challenging for airlines to invest in SAF production and adoption, especially considering the aviation industry’s cost sensitivity.

Limited Supply Chain Infrastructure:

  • The aviation industry requires a robust supply chain to ensure a consistent and reliable availability of SAF.
  • However, the existing infrastructure for SAF production and distribution is not well-developed, hindering the scalability and accessibility of SAF in the market.

Availability of Sustainable Feedstocks:

  • SAF production heavily depends on the availability of sustainable feedstocks, including agricultural residues, algae, and waste oils.
  • However, these feedstocks have limited availability, and there is competition for resources with other industries, such as food and agriculture.
  • Striking a balance between the demand for sustainable feedstocks and ensuring food security and other essential needs poses a significant challenge.

Complex Certification Process:

  • The certification process for SAF involves stringent quality and sustainability criteria. Meeting these requirements can be complex and time-consuming for producers.
  • Additionally, the lack of globally recognized standards further complicates the certification process, adding to the challenges faced by SAF producers and users.

-Source: The Hindu

Higgs Boson


The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which hosts the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), recently announced that scientists at the organisation found the first evidence of the rare process by which the Higgs boson decays into a Z boson and a photon.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Higgs boson
  2. Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics
  3. About Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

About Higgs boson:

  • The Higgs boson is a fundamental particle associated with the Higgs field, which gives mass to other particles.
  • It is one of the elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics.
  • Sometimes referred to as the “God particle,” it plays a crucial role in subatomic physics.
  • Proposed in 1964 by Peter Higgs, François Englert, and others to explain particle mass.
  • Discovered on July 4, 2012, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
  • The Higgs boson has a mass of 125 billion electron volts, making it significantly more massive than a proton.
  • It has zero charge and zero spin, distinguishing it as the only elementary particle with no spin.
  • It acts as a force carrier during particle interactions.

Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics:

  • The standard model of elementary particles is a theoretical framework in physics that explains the particles of matter and their interactions.
  • It represents the elementary particles as connected through mathematical symmetry, similar to bilateral symmetry between two objects.
  • The model utilizes mathematical groups that result from continuous transformations between different particles.
  • It suggests a finite number of fundamental particles represented by characteristic “eigen” states of these groups.
  • Experimental observations have confirmed the existence of particles predicted by the model, including the Z boson.
  • The most recent discovery, made in 2012, was the Higgs boson, which is responsible for giving mass to the heavier particles.

About Large Hadron Collider (LHC):

  • The LHC is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator.
  • Located near Geneva, Switzerland, spanning the border of France and Switzerland.
  • Built by CERN, it conducts experiments with highly energized particles.
  • It can recreate conditions similar to the early universe moments after the Big Bang.
  • Scientists collide high-energy subatomic particles and observe their interactions.
  • Notably, the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 was a significant breakthrough at the LHC.

-Source: Indian Express

Feasibility of Salt Cavern-Based Strategic Oil Reserves in Rajasthan


Government-owned engineering consultancy firm Engineers India (EIL) studying the prospects and feasibility of salt cavern-based strategic oil reserves in Rajasthan to increase India’s strategic oil storage capacity.


GS I: Geography

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Current Strategic Oil Storage Facilities
  2. Salt Cavern-Based Reserves
  3. Potential in India for Storing Crude and Petroleum Products
  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserves Program: Progress So Far

Current Strategic Oil Storage Facilities

  • Existing strategic oil storage facilities in India:
    • Mangaluru and Padur in Karnataka
    • Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh
  • These facilities are made up of excavated rock caverns
Importance of Strategic Crude Oil Reserves
  • Countries build strategic crude oil reserves to mitigate major supply disruptions in the global supply chain
  • India, as the world’s third-largest consumer of crude, depends on imports for over 85% of its requirement
  • Strategic petroleum reserves (SPR) ensure energy security and availability during global supply shocks and emergencies
India’s Current SPR Capacity
  • India’s SPR capacity: 5.33 million tonnes, approximately 39 million barrels of crude
  • Can meet around 9.5 days of demand
  • Expansion plans: Cumulative 6.5 million tonnes at two locations:
    • Chandikhol in Odisha (4 million tonnes)
    • Padur (2.5 million tonnes)

Salt Cavern-Based Reserves

Development Process

  • Salt caverns: Developed through solution mining by pumping water into geological formations with large salt deposits to dissolve the salt
  • Rock caverns: Developed through excavation

Simplicity, Speed, and Cost

  • Salt caverns: Process of solution mining is simpler, faster, and less cost-intensive compared to excavated rock caverns

Sealing and Operational Efficiency

  • Salt cavern-based facilities: Naturally well-sealed and engineered for rapid injection and extraction of oil
  • More attractive option for oil storage compared to other geological formations (MIT report)

Impermeable Barrier and Surface Operation

  • Salt caverns: The salt lining inside the caverns has extremely low oil absorbency, creating a natural impermeable barrier against hydrocarbons
  • Salt cavern-based storages can be created and operated almost entirely from the surface, unlike rock caverns

Example: US Strategic Petroleum Reserve

  • Entire Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program in the United States based on salt cavern-based storage facilities
  • US Strategic Petroleum Reserve consists of four sites with deep underground storage caverns created in salt domes along the Gulf of Mexico coast in Texas and Louisiana
  • Cumulative capacity of the US strategic oil reserves: approximately 727 million barrels

Multiple Uses of Salt Caverns

  • Salt caverns used to store liquid fuels, natural gas, compressed air, and hydrogen in various parts of the world

Potential in India for Storing Crude and Petroleum Products

  • Rajasthan, with ample salt formations, considered conducive for salt cavern-based strategic storage facilities
  • Previous plans to build a strategic oil reserve in Bikaner did not materialize
  • EIL’s partnership with DEEP.KBB GmbH, a German company specializing in cavern storage and solution mining technology, bridges the technical know-how gap
  • Refinery in Barmer and existing crude pipelines in Rajasthan provide infrastructure for building strategic oil reserves
  • Specific site identification and project cost estimation still premature

Strategic Petroleum Reserves Program: Progress So Far

  • India’s strategic oil reserves aim to build emergency stockpiles similar to those of the US and Western allies after the 1970s oil crisis
  • Three existing rock cavern-based facilities built during the first phase
  • Crude oil released from reserves by an empowered committee during supply disruptions
  • International Energy Agency (IEA) recommends countries to hold emergency oil stockpiles providing 90 days of import protection
Storage Capacity in India
  • Apart from SPR, oil marketing companies (OMCs) have storage facilities for crude oil and petroleum products for 64.5 days
  • Combined storage can meet around 74 days of the country’s petroleum demand
Commercialization of Strategic Petroleum Reserves
  • India plans to commercialize its strategic petroleum reserves
  • Example: Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) stored 0.8 million tonnes of crude oil in the Mangaluru strategic reserve
  • Second phase of the program aims to develop strategic reserves through public-private partnerships, reducing government spending and exploiting commercial potential

-Source: Indian Express

Purchasing Managers Index


Rising from 57.2 in April to 58.7 in May, the seasonally adjusted S&P Global India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) rose to a 31-month high.


GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy, Mobilization of Resources)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)?
  2. Understanding PMI

What is Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)?

  • The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an index of the prevailing direction of economic trends in the manufacturing and service sectors.
  • It consists of a diffusion index that summarizes whether market conditions, as viewed by purchasing managers, are expanding, staying the same, or contracting.
  • The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current and future business conditions to company decision makers, analysts, and investors.
  • In simple words, Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is a measure of the prevailing direction of economic trends in manufacturing.
  • PMI is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception about key business variables as compared with the previous month.
  • The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current and future business conditions to company decision makers, analysts, and investors.
  • It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is also constructed.
  • PMI is compiled by IHS Markit for more than 40 economies worldwide – IHS Markit is a global leader in information, analytics and solutions for the major industries and markets that drive economies worldwide.

Understanding PMI

  • The PMI is a number from 0 to 100.
  • A print above 50 means expansion, while a score below that denotes contraction.
  • A reading at 50 indicates no change.
  • If PMI of the previous month is higher than the PMI of the current month, it represents that the economy is contracting.
  • It is usually released at the start of every month. It is, therefore, considered a good leading indicator of economic activity.
  • It is different from the Index of Industrial Production (IIP), which also gauges the level of activity in the economy.
  • IIP covers the broader industrial sector compared to PMI.
  • However, PMI is more dynamic compared to a standard industrial production index.

-Source: The Hindu

Agni-1 Missile


Recently, a successful training launch of a medium-range ballistic missile, Agni-1 was carried out by the Strategic Forces Command from APJ Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Agni-1 Missile
  2. About IGMDP

About Agni-1 Missile:

  • Agni-1 is a medium-range ballistic missile with a range of 700-900 km.
  • It is a single-stage, solid-fuel missile.
  • The missile is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead with an estimated payload of 1,000 kg.
  • The latest upgrade to Agni-1 includes a new guidance system for improved accuracy and a new warhead for increased destructive power.
  • It is road-mobile, providing high mobility and making it difficult to target by enemies.
  • The first test-firing of Agni-1 took place in 2002.
  • The Indian Army’s Strategic Forces Command deployed the missile in 2007.
  • Agni-1 originated from India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) initiated in 1983.

About IGMDP:

  • IGMDP was a comprehensive missile development program in India started in 1982-83.
  • The program was led by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam and managed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), under the Ministry of Defence.
  • The program aimed to develop a range of Indian guided missiles.
  • The types of missiles developed under IGMDP included:
    • Short Range Surface to Surface Missile (SSM) ‘Prithvi’
    • Long Range Surface to Surface Missile (SSM) ‘Agni’
    • Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (SAM) ‘Akash’
    • Short Range Surface to Air Missile (SAM) ‘Trishul’
    • Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGM) ‘Nag’

-Source: The Hindu

GOBARdhan Scheme


Recently, Union Minister for Jal Shakti has launched the Unified Registration Portal for GOBARdhan.


GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Unified Registration Portal
  2. GOBARdhan Scheme

About Unified Registration Portal:

  • The Unified Registration Portal is a centralized repository for investment and participation in the Biogas/CBG (Compressed Biogas) sector in India.
  • Its primary objective is to simplify the process of setting up CBG/Biogas plants across the country.
  • The portal allows government, cooperative, or private entities involved in or planning to establish Biogas/CBG/Bio-CNG plants to obtain a registration number by enrolling in the portal.
  • This registration number provides access to various benefits and support from the Ministries and Departments of the Government of India.

GOBARdhan Scheme:

  • The GOBARdhan Scheme, which stands for Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan, is a significant initiative of the Government of India.
  • It was launched in 2018 as a national priority project under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen-Phase II program.
  • The aim of the scheme is to convert cattle dung, agricultural residue, and other organic waste into Biogas, CBG, and bio-fertilizers to generate wealth and energy.
  • The scheme adopts a comprehensive approach involving various government departments to promote a circular economy by transforming waste into valuable resources.
  • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, is the nodal ministry responsible for the implementation of the GOBARdhan Scheme.

-Source: The Hindu

March 2024