- Census, delimitation exercise after 2024 election
- Perks and Entitlements of Recognized National and State Parties
- Escalating Tensions Between India and Canada
- Hoysala Temples
- Controversy Surrounding the Terms Socialist and Secular in the Constitution
- Pterygotrigla intermedica
Census, Delimitation Exercise After 2024 Election
The Lok Sabha has passed the Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam (Constitution One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth Amendment) Bill, 2023, which proposes a 33% reservation for women in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. Home Minister Shah mentioned during the debate that census and delimitation activities will commence after the 2024 Lok Sabha elections.
GS I: Population and Related issues
Dimensions of the Article:
- About the Census
- Delimitation: Fixing Electoral Boundaries
- Delimitation Commission:
About the Census
- The census provides information on size, distribution and socio-economic, demographic and other characteristics of the country’s population.
- The first synchronous census in India was held in 1881, and since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years.
- India’s last census was carried out in 2011 when the country’s population stood at 121 crores.
- The Census 2021 will be conducted in 18 languages out of the 22 scheduled languages (under 8th schedule) and English, and the option of “Other” under the gender category will be changed to “Third Gender”.
- For the first time data is proposed to be collected through a mobile app by enumerators and they will receive an additional payment as an incentive.
- The last caste-based census was conducted by the British in 1931.
- Arthashastra by ‘Kautilya’ written in the 3rd Century BC prescribed the collection of population statistics as a measure of state policy for taxation.
- In India, a census is conducted every decade and Census 2021 will be the 16th national census of the country.
Key facts about India’s census
- In India, the census was first started under British Viceroy Lord Mayo in 1872 and the first synchronous census in India was held in 1881.
- It is being conducted at an interval of 10 years.
- The decennial Census is conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs.
- Census is conducted under the provisions of the Census Act, of 1948.
- The population census is a Union subject under Article 246 of the Indian Constitution.
- It is listed as serial number 69 of the seventh schedule of the constitution.
Significance of census:
- Foundation of Statistical Analyses: A census generates primary and authentic data that forms the foundation for various statistical analyses. This data is crucial for planning, decision-making, and development initiatives across sectors like administration, economy, and social welfare.
- Planning and Development: Census data provides essential information for planning and development initiatives in various sectors. It helps policymakers, government agencies, and organizations to understand demographic patterns, population trends, and distribution of resources, enabling them to formulate effective strategies and allocate resources efficiently.
- Constituency Delimitation and Representation: Census data plays a vital role in demarcating constituencies and determining representation in government bodies. It helps in deciding the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Parliament, State legislatures, local bodies, and government services. This ensures proportional representation and promotes inclusivity in the political and administrative systems.
- Business and Industry Planning: Census data is valuable for business houses and industries as it helps them strengthen and plan their operations, especially for expanding into areas that were previously underserved. The data provides insights into population characteristics, consumer demographics, and market potential, facilitating business decisions and market penetration strategies.
- Grants and Resource Allocation: The Finance Commission utilizes population figures from census data to provide grants to states. The allocation of resources, funding, and development assistance is often based on the population data available from the census.
Delimitation: Fixing Electoral Boundaries
- Delimitation is the process of establishing the boundaries of territorial constituencies in a region with a legislative body.
- In the Indian Context
- In India, delimitation involves the redrawing of boundaries for Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly Constituencies.
- This process may result in a change in the number of seats allocated to a state or union territory.
- Delimitation aims to ensure that the population of constituencies remains as equal as possible based on the most recent Census data.
- It strives for a fair division of geographical areas, ensuring a level playing field for political parties and candidates in terms of the number of voters.
- Article 82 and Article 170 of the Indian Constitution empower the Parliament to readjust seat allocations in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies, respectively, after each Census.
- Delimitation Commission Acts have been enacted by Parliament in 1952, 1962, 1972, and 2002 to facilitate this process.
- Delimitation has occurred only four times despite seven Census operations.
- The most recent delimitation, based on the 2001 census, was carried out under the Delimitation Commission Act, 2002.
- The next Delimitation Commission will be established after 2026.
- Article 330 and Article 332 allow for the re-fixing of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies based on the 2001 census.
Last Delimitation Exercise (2002)
- The 2002 delimitation focused on redrawing constituency boundaries but did not increase the number of constituencies.
- The number of Lok Sabha constituencies has remained unchanged since 1976.
- Delimitation can lead to political disputes, particularly over the distribution of seats among states based on population ratios.
- This has contributed to controversies, with some states concerned about losing seats while others gain.
- The 42nd Amendment in 1976 suspended seat boundary redrawing until 2001, and this suspension was extended until 2026 through the 84th Amendment Act of 2002.
- The year 2026 was chosen to align with the National Population Policy’s goal of achieving a roughly equal number of births and deaths in India.
- The Delimitation Commission is a high-powered committee responsible for delineating and redefining the boundaries of various constituencies for state assembly and Lok Sabha elections.
- It is appointed by the President of India and collaborates with the Election Commission.
- The Commission typically comprises:
- A retired or sitting Supreme Court Judge who serves as the chairperson.
- An Election Commissioner.
- The State Election Commissioners of the relevant states.
- The decisions and orders of the Delimitation Commission hold the status of law and cannot be challenged in any court of law.
- Although the Commission’s orders are presented before the Lok Sabha and the concerned legislative assemblies, these bodies cannot make alterations to the Commission’s decisions.
-Source: Indian Express
Perks and Entitlements of Recognized National and State Parties
Despite the allotment of bungalows being cancelled years ago, many recognised national and state parties continue their unauthorised occupation of the properties given to them. This was revealed by the official records obtained under Right to Information.
GS II: Polity and Governance
Dimensions of the Article:
- What are national parties entitled to?
- National Party vs. Regional Party
- Advantages of Being Recognized as a National Party
- Recognized national and state political parties have the privilege of obtaining land for their office construction at reduced rates.
- According to a 2006 policy established by the Union government’s Land and Development Office (L&DO), these parties must vacate any government bungalows used as offices within three years of receiving the land or upon completing their new office building, whichever occurs first.
What are national parties entitled to?
National parties in India are entitled to certain benefits and privileges, which include:
- Reserved Election Symbols: National parties have election symbols reserved for their candidates across the country. This ensures that their candidates can use these symbols for better recognition and branding during elections.
- Land Allotment for Party Office: National parties recognized by the Election Commission of India (ECI) and state parties with at least seven Members of Parliament (MPs) in total in both Houses of Parliament are considered for the allotment of land in Delhi for constructing their party offices. This land is provided at subsidized rates.
- Plot Size Based on Strength: The size of the allotted plot depends on the party’s strength in both Houses of Parliament. It starts with 500 square meters for parties with up to 15 MPs and can go up to 4 acres for parties with over 201 MPs.
- Vacating Government Bungalows: Parties that receive land allotment for office construction are required to vacate any government bungalows they may be occupying. This should be done either upon the completion of the office building or within three years of the land allotment, whichever comes earlier.
- Usage for Office Purpose: The premises allotted to political parties are to be used exclusively for office purposes and not for residential or commercial use.
- Utilization for National Units and Wings: Parties are expected to use the constructed buildings for their national units as well as any other wings or organizations associated with the party.
National Party vs. Regional Party
- A national party is one expected to have a presence throughout the nation.
- In contrast, regional parties confine their influence to specific states or regions.
- The name implies broader reach but not necessarily significant national political influence.
- Some national parties may lack substantial national clout.
- Not all national parties are equally influential on the national stage.
- Regional parties can hold dominant positions within a particular state or region.
- They might play crucial roles in state politics despite being categorized as regional.
- DMK in Tamil Nadu.
- BJD in Odisha.
- YSRCP in Andhra Pradesh.
- RJD in Bihar.
- TRS in Telangana.
Criteria for National Party/State Party
- The ECI has laid down the technical criterion for a party to be recognised as a national party.
- A party may gain or lose national party status from time to time, depending on the fulfilment of these laid-down conditions.
As per the ECI’s Political Parties and Election Symbols, 2019 handbook, a political party would be considered a national party if:
- it is recognised as state party in four or more states; or
- if its candidates polled at least 6% of total valid votes in any four or more states in the last Lok Sabha or Assembly elections and has at least four MPs in the last Lok Sabha polls; or
- if it has won at least 2% of the total seats in the Lok Sabha from not less than three states.
To be recognised as a state party, a party needs:
- at least 6% valid vote-share in the last Assembly election and have at least 2 MLAs; or have 6% valid vote-share in the last Lok Sabha elections from that state and at least one MP from that state; or
- at least 3% of the total number of seats or three seats, whichever is more, in the last Assembly elections; or
- at least one MP for every 25 members or any fraction allotted to the state in the Lok Sabha; or
- have at least 8% of the total valid votes in the last Assembly election or Lok Sabha election from the state.
Advantages of Being Recognized as a National Party
- Exclusive Election Symbols:
- National parties have election symbols reserved for their candidates nationwide.
- This ensures consistency and recognition for their candidates on a national scale.
- Party Office in Delhi:
- Recognized national parties are eligible to obtain land in Delhi for constructing a party office.
- This central location can serve as a hub for national-level political activities.
- Increased Star Campaigners:
- They can have up to 40 star campaigners, as opposed to the 20 allowed for registered but not recognized parties.
- Star campaigners are influential figures who campaign for the party during elections, enhancing its visibility.
- Exemption from Spending Limit:
- Expenditure on campaigns and travel by star campaigners does not count towards the candidate’s spending limit.
- This allows for more extensive campaigning efforts.
- Broadcast/Telecast Facilities:
- Recognized national parties are granted broadcast and telecast facilities on Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan (national television) during general elections.
- This provides a platform for reaching a wide audience.
- Nomination Process Simplification:
- Only one proposer is required for filing nominations by recognized state and national parties.
- This streamlines the nomination process for their candidates.
-Source: Indian Express
Escalating Tensions Between India and Canada
Tensions between India and Canada escalated after Canadian Prime Minister accused India of involvement in the killing of a Khalistani leader in Surrey in June 2023. India denied the allegations and accused Canada of sheltering Khalistani extremists.
GS II: International Relations
Dimensions of the Article:
- What is the Khalistan movement?
- Recent Anti-India Activities in Canada
- Impact of Khalistan Radicalism on India-Canada Relations
- History of Khalistan Movement and Terrorism in Canada:
- Way Forward
What is the Khalistan movement?
- The Khalistan movement is a fight for a separate, sovereign Sikh state in present day Punjab (both India and Pakistan).
- Over the years, it has survived in various forms, in various places and amongst different populations.
- The movement was crushed in India following Operation Blue Star (1984) and Operation Black Thunder (1986 and 1988), but it continues to evoke sympathy and support among sections of the Sikh population, especially in the Sikh diaspora in countries such as Canada, the UK, and Australia.
When and why did the movement start?
- The origins of the Khalistan movement can be traced back to India’s independence and the subsequent Partition along religious lines.
- The Punjab province was divided between India and Pakistan during Partition, leading to communal violence and the displacement of millions of Sikhs and Hindus to the east.
- Lahore, the capital of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, went to Pakistan, along with holy Sikh sites like Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism.
- Despite being a minority in India, with only around 2% of the population being Sikh, the community began a political struggle for greater autonomy, starting with the Punjabi Suba Movement for the creation of a Punjabi-speaking state.
- The States Reorganisation Commission rejected this demand in its 1955 report, but after years of protests, the state of Punjab was eventually reorganized in 1966 to reflect the Punjabi Suba demand.
- The erstwhile Punjab state was trifurcated into the Hindi-speaking, Hindu-majority states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana, and the Punjabi-speaking, Sikh-majority Punjab.
Recent Anti-India Activities in Canada
Operation Bluestar Anniversary Parade (June 2023):
- Location: Brampton, Ontario.
- Description: A parade appeared to celebrate the assassination of former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. It featured a blood-stained figure and advocated revenge for the attack on Darbar Sahib.
Pro-Khalistan Referendum (2022):
- Conducted by Sikhs for Justice (SFJ), a pro-Khalistan organization.
- Location: Brampton.
- Description: SFJ organized a so-called “referendum” on Khalistan in Brampton, claiming significant support for the cause.
Sanjh Savera Magazine (2002):
- A Toronto-based Punjabi-language weekly.
- Event: In 2002, the magazine greeted Indira Gandhi’s death anniversary with a cover illustration celebrating her murder and glorifying those responsible.
- Transformation: The magazine received government advertisements and has evolved into a prominent daily newspaper in Canada.
Indian Concerns Over such Activities:
- Diplomatic Concerns: Indian diplomats in Canada have repeatedly expressed concerns about Canada’s failure to address “Sikh extremism” and the ongoing harassment of Indian diplomats and officials by Khalistani supporters.
- High-Level Discussions: The Indian Prime Minister raised strong concerns about Sikh protests in Canada during discussions with the Canadian Prime Minister on the sidelines of a G20 summit in New Delhi.
- Trade Implications: As a result of these concerns, Canada has halted discussions on a proposed trade treaty with India.
Impact of Khalistan Radicalism on India-Canada Relations
- Allegations and counter-allegations related to Khalistan radicalism can strain diplomatic ties, potentially affecting the overall relationship between India and Canada.
- Erosion of Trust: Trust and confidence between the two nations may be eroded, making it challenging to collaborate on various bilateral and international issues.
- Khalistan Movement as a Threat: The Khalistan movement is viewed as a security threat to India’s sovereignty, gaining ground in foreign countries.
- Arrest of Sikh Separatist Leader: India’s arrest of a Sikh separatist leader in April 2023 for allegedly reviving calls for Khalistan has raised concerns about potential violence in Punjab.
- Discontent over Indira Gandhi Depiction: Earlier in 2023, India criticized Canada for allowing a float in a parade depicting the assassination of Indira Gandhi, interpreting it as glorification of Sikh separatist violence.
- Demonstrations and Vandalism: Frequent demonstrations and vandalism by Sikh separatists and their supporters at Indian diplomatic missions in multiple countries, including Canada, pose a threat to Indian sovereignty and integrity.
- Potential Impact: Accusations related to Khalistan could affect business partnerships and investment flows between India and Canada.
- Caution and Reassessment: Businesses may exercise caution or reassess their engagement due to heightened political tension.
- Trade Growth: Bilateral trade in goods between India and Canada reached approximately USD 8.2 billion in 2022, showing significant growth compared to 2021.
- Emphasis on Services: Bilateral services trade, valued at around USD 6.6 billion in 2022, was emphasized as a significant contributor to the relationship.
- Challenges in Alignment: Cooperation on critical global challenges such as climate change, counter-terrorism, and international security might be adversely impacted.
- Alignment Difficulty: Both countries may find it challenging to align their positions and work together effectively on these shared concerns.
Travel and Interactions:
- Impact on Citizens: Escalating tensions could affect travel and interactions between Indian and Canadian citizens, potentially making it more cumbersome or less appealing to travel to each other’s countries.
- Review by Canada: Canada may review or tighten its immigration policies, especially concerning individuals associated with Khalistani separatism, in response to India’s concerns about sheltering such elements.
- Lasting Impact: The recent tensions could have a lasting effect on long-term bilateral cooperation and partnerships.
- Rebuilding Trust: Reestablishing trust and reestablishing a constructive relationship may require substantial efforts and time.
- Historical Relationship: India and Canada have a long-standing bilateral relationship based on shared democratic values, multiculturalism, and strong people-to-people contacts, dating back to 1947.
History of Khalistan Movement and Terrorism in Canada:
Origin of Khalistan Movement:
- The Khalistan movement can be traced back to the establishment of the ‘Khalistan government in exile’ office in Vancouver in 1982 by Surjan Singh Gill. Initially, it had limited local Sikh support.
Repercussions of Punjab Militancy:
- The militancy in Punjab during the 1980s had repercussions in Canada, as it became a focal point for Sikh separatist activities.
Handling of Terror Suspects:
- Canada’s handling of individuals like Talwinder Singh Parmar, accused of terrorism in Punjab, was criticized by India. The perception of sheltering such individuals added to tensions.
Air India Bombing (1985):
- Canada witnessed a horrific act of terrorism with the bombing of Air India Kanishka in June 1985, orchestrated by the Babbar Khalsa, a Khalistani outfit. This tragic incident further strained relations.
Previous Instances of India-Canada Tensions:
Early Tensions (1948):
- Strained relations between India and Canada trace back to 1948 when Canada supported a plebiscite in Kashmir, reflecting early discord.
1998 Nuclear Tests:
- Relations took a significant downturn when Canada recalled its high commissioner to India following India’s nuclear tests in 1998.
- Recent tensions include the Canadian Prime Minister’s expressions of concern regarding India’s response to farmers’ protests and his Liberal Party’s alliance with the New Democratic Party (NDP), which endorsed the Khalistan Referendum, further fueling tensions.
Economic Development in Punjab:
- The Indian government should invest in the economic development of Punjab, ensuring that it receives its fair share of resources, opportunities, and benefits.
Addressing Societal Issues:
- Address problems like unemployment, drug abuse, environmental degradation, and agrarian distress in Punjab to alleviate grievances.
Justice and Reconciliation:
- Ensure justice for the victims and survivors of the violence and human rights violations that occurred during the Khalistan movement.
- Maintain open lines of communication at various levels of government to discuss concerns and grievances openly.
- Engage in constructive and respectful dialogue to address the Khalistan issue, clarify each other’s perspectives, and find common ground to promote a more harmonious relationship.
-Source: The Hindu
The Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala, the famed Hoysala temples of Belur, Halebid and Somanathapur in Karnataka have been added to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list. This inclusion marks the 42nd UNESCO World Heritage Site in India
GS I: History
Dimensions of the Article:
- Hoysala Temples – Key Facts
- Hoysala Architecture
Hoysala Temples – Key Facts
Chennakeshava Temple in Belur:
- Built by Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana in 1116 AD.
- Located in Belur on the banks of the Yagachi River, a former Hoysala Empire capital.
- Star-shaped temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
Hoysaleshwara Temple in Halebid:
- One of the largest Shiva temples constructed by the Hoysalas.
- Features sculptures depicting Shiva, Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Bhagavata Purana scenes.
- Halebid includes three Jaina basadi (temples) and a stepped well.
Keshava Temple of Somanathapur:
- Trikuta Temple dedicated to Lord Krishna in three forms: Janardhana, Keshava, and Venugopala.
- Missing Keshava idol; Janardhana and Venugopala idols are damaged.
- Hoysala Temples constructed during the 12th and 13th centuries CE.
- Design and artistry of the Hoysala dynasty’s architecture.
- All three Hoysala temples are under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
Key Architectural Elements:
- Mantapa (Hall)
- Vimana (Tower)
- These temples not only serve as architectural marvels but also as preservers of the Hoysala dynasty’s cultural and historical legacy.
- Hoysala temples often referred to as hybrid or vesara due to their distinctive style that falls between dravida and nagara architectural traditions, making them easily distinguishable from other medieval temples.
- Hoysala architecture is celebrated for its unique fusion of the Bhumija style prevalent in Central India, the Nagara traditions from northern and western India, and the Karnataka Dravida modes favored by the Kalyani Chalukyas.
- The temples feature multiple shrines arranged around a central pillared hall, forming intricate star-shaped layouts.
- These structures are crafted from soapstone, a relatively soft stone that allows for the intricate carving of sculptures, notably the detailed jewelry adorning the temple walls.
-Source: The Hindu
Controversy Surrounding the Terms Socialist and Secular in the Constitution
The main opposition party in the Lok Sabha has alleged that the words “socialist” and “secular” were absent from the copies of the Indian Constitution’s Preamble provided to Members of Parliament.
GS II: Polity and Governance
Dimensions of the Article:
- Text of the Original Preamble of the Constitution
- Amendment to the Preamble
- The Preamble serves as the introductory section or preface of the Constitution and encapsulates its essence.
- Eminent jurist N. A. Palkhivala referred to the Preamble as the Constitution’s “identity card.”
- The practice of commencing a constitution with a Preamble was first seen in the American Constitution and was subsequently adopted by several nations, including India.
- India’s Preamble is derived from the ‘Objectives Resolution,’ originally drafted and presented by Jawaharlal Nehru, and approved by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
- The Preamble translates the ideals contained in the Objectives Resolution into written words.
Significance of the Preamble of the Constitution:
- The Preamble encapsulates the fundamental philosophy and core values, encompassing political, moral, and religious aspects, upon which the Constitution is founded.
- It embodies the lofty vision of the Constituent Assembly and reflects the aspirations and dreams of the Constitution’s framers.
- Serving as an introductory section, it outlines the Constitution’s fundamental principles and objectives.
Text of the Original Preamble of the Constitution:
- WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
- JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
- LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
- EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
- and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity of the Nation;
- IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Ingredients of the Preamble:
The Preamble comprises four essential components:
- Source of authority of the Constitution: It establishes that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.
- Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, and republican polity.
- Objectives of the Constitution: It outlines justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity as the Constitution’s objectives.
- Date of adoption of the Constitution: It specifies November 26, 1949, as the date of adoption.
Amendment to the Preamble:
- The 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976) introduced three new words into the Preamble: “Socialist,” “Secular,” and “Integrity.”
Addition of the word “Socialist:”
- During this period, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s government emphasized pro-poor initiatives with slogans like “garibi hatao.”
- The inclusion of the term “Socialist” in the Preamble highlighted socialism as a fundamental goal and philosophy of India.
- It’s important to note that the envisioned socialism in India did not involve the complete nationalization of all means of production, distinct from the socialism of the USSR or China at the time.
Addition of the word “Secular:”
- India’s citizens practice diverse faiths and embrace unity in diversity.
- “Secularism” was introduced to reflect this unity and fraternity despite differences in class, caste, culture, religion, etc.
- Including “secular” in the Preamble signified that the state protects all religions and treats every citizen impartially.
- A secular Indian state prioritizes human relationships over the relationship between a person and God, making it a matter of individual choice.
- The secular nature of the Indian state is reinforced by Articles 25-28 of the Constitution, safeguarding religious freedom.
-Source: Indian Express
Recently, the scientists of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have discovered a new species of vibrant orange-colored deep-water marine fish from Digha Mohana in West Bengal.
GS III: Species in News
Dimensions of the Article:
- Pterygotrigla Intermedica: A Unique Gurnard Species
- Key Facts About Zoological Survey of India
Pterygotrigla Intermedica: A Unique Gurnard Species
- Pterygotrigla intermedica is commonly known as gurnards or sea-robins, belonging to the family Triglidae.
- It’s the fourth species of the Pterygotrigla genus discovered in India, with a total of 178 species in the Triglidae family worldwide.
- This species of gurnard exhibits distinctive features, setting it apart from other gurnad species.
- These features include snout length, shape of the internuchal space, and size of the cleithral spine.
- Notably, it has a distinct pectoral fin with specific coloration patterns, a long opercular spine, and a very short cleithral spine.
- Other unique traits include characteristics of the lateral line, gill rakers on the upper limb, 12–13 gill rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch, and a large black blotch positioned between the 4th and 6th spines of the first dorsal fin.
Key Facts About Zoological Survey of India:
- Established in 1916, the Zoological Survey of India is India’s premier organization dedicated to zoological research and studies.
- It operates under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change.
- Objectives of the organization encompass the exploration, survey, and monitoring of faunal diversity across Indian states, ecosystems, and protected areas.
- The Zoological Survey of India also conducts periodic reviews of the status of threatened and endemic species and prepares databases documenting the recorded species within the country.
-Source: Down To Earth