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Current Affairs 27 March 2024

  1. Delhi Chief Minister Sent to Enforcement Directorate’s Custody in Excise Policy Case
  2. Popularity and Concerns Surrounding Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water Purification
  3. District Election Management Plan
  4. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India
  5. Smart Meter National Programme
  6. Cannabis
  7. Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary


A Magistrate Court in Delhi has recently remanded the Chief Minister of Delhi to the custody of the Enforcement Directorate (ED) in connection with the Excise Policy Case. The ED has accused the Chief Minister of being the “kingpin and key conspirator” in the Delhi excise scam, marking a significant development in the ongoing investigation.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Delhi Excise Policy Case: An Overview
  2. Can a Sitting Chief Minister Govern the State/UT Administration from Prison?
  3. Enforcement Directorate

Delhi Excise Policy Case: An Overview

Policy Implementation and Scrapping:

  • The Delhi Excise Policy 2021-22 was introduced in November 2021 but was revoked in July 2022.
  • The policy faced criticism due to perceived procedural lapses, corruption, and financial losses.
Key Allegations:
  • Financial Losses: Delhi’s Chief Secretary reported that the decisions made by Delhi’s Deputy Chief Minister and Excise Minister resulted in financial losses amounting to over Rs 580 crore.
  • Conspiracy and Kickbacks: The Enforcement Directorate (ED) claimed that the new excise policy was part of a larger conspiracy to ensure a 12% profit margin for specific private companies in the alcohol sector.
  • Kickbacks: Allegations suggest a 6% kickback scheme was in place, where certain entities would receive bribes in exchange for favorable policy decisions. A kickback typically refers to illicit payments made to individuals, often public officials, in exchange for favorable actions or decisions.
  • Loopholes and Cartel Formation: The ED believes that the policy contained intentional loopholes meant to encourage cartel formations, benefiting leaders of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP).
  • Preferential Treatment: Certain alcohol business owners and operators allegedly received special treatment, including discounts, fee extensions, penalty waivers, and pandemic-related relief. These favors were allegedly granted in return for kickbacks.
  • Political Influence: The kickbacks acquired through this scheme were purportedly utilized to influence Assembly elections in Punjab and Goa in early 2022.

Can a Sitting Chief Minister Govern the State/UT Administration from Prison?

Constitutional Provisions:
  • President and Governors: They are immune from civil and criminal proceedings until their term ends as per Article 361 of the Constitution. They are not answerable to any court for acts done in discharge of their official duties.
  • Prime Ministers and Chief Ministers: They do not enjoy such immunity. However, they are treated equally under the Constitution’s Right to Equality before the law.
Legal Framework:
  • Disqualification: A Chief Minister can be disqualified only when convicted in a case. As per the Representation of the People Act, 1951, disqualification provisions exist for certain offenses, but a conviction is mandatory.
  • Loss of Office: A Chief Minister can lose the position either due to loss of majority support in the assembly or through a successful No-Confidence Motion against the government.
Judicial Pronouncements:
  • Manoj Narula vs Union of India Case, 2014: The Supreme Court emphasized constitutional morality, good governance, and public trust as basic norms for holding a public office. Public officials, especially those like Chief Ministers, are expected to uphold high standards of moral conduct.
  • S. Ramachandran vs V. Senthil Balaji Case, 2023: The Madras High Court highlighted the practical difficulties of a Minister functioning while in custody. The court questioned whether such individuals should receive salaries from the public exchequer without performing associated duties.
Practical Challenges:
  • Access to Resources: A Chief Minister in jail may face restrictions on accessing official documents or communicating with government officials.
  • Legitimacy Concerns: Even if technically possible, concerns about the legitimacy and effectiveness of a Chief Minister’s leadership while in custody remain.
Administrative Measures:
  • Failure of Constitutional Machinery: In case of impracticality in governing from jail, the Lt. Governor can cite the ‘failure of constitutional machinery in the state,’ which could lead to the imposition of President’s rule in the UT under Article 239AB. This would bring the territory under direct control of the Union government.

Enforcement Directorate

  • The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.
  • It is part of the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government Of India.
  • It is composed of officers from the Indian Revenue Service, Indian Corporate Law Service, Indian Police Service and the Indian Administrative Service.
  • The origin of this Directorate goes back to 1 May 1956, when an ‘Enforcement Unit’ was formed, in Department of Economic Affairs, for handling Exchange Control Laws violations under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947.
  • In the year 1957, this Unit was renamed as ‘Enforcement Directorate’.
Functions of Enforcement Directorate
  • The prime objective of the Enforcement Directorate is the enforcement of two key Acts of the Government of India namely, the Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA) and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002 (PMLA).
  • The ED’s (Enforcement Directorate) official website enlists its other objectives which are primarily linked to checking money laundering in India.
  • In fact this is an investigation agency so providing the complete details on public domain is against the rules of GOI.
  • The ED investigates suspected violations of the provisions of the FEMA. Suspected violations includes; non-realization of export proceeds, “hawala transactions”, purchase of assets abroad, possession of foreign currency in huge amount, non-repatriation of foreign exchange, foreign exchange violations and other forms of violations under FEMA.
  • ED collects, develops and disseminates intelligence information related to violations of FEMA, 1999. The ED receives the intelligence inputs from Central and State Intelligence agencies, complaints etc.
  • ED has the power to attach the asset of the culprits found guilty of violation of FEMA. “Attachment of the assets” means prohibition of transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property by an order issued under Chapter III of the Money Laundering Act [Section 2(1) (d)].
  • To undertake, search, seizure, arrest, prosecution action and survey etc. against offender of PMLA offence.
  • To provide and seek mutual legal assistance to/from respective states in respect of attachment/confiscation of proceeds of crime and handed over the transfer of accused persons under Money Laundering Act.
  • To settle cases of violations of the erstwhile FERA, 1973 and FEMA, 1999 and to decide penalties imposed on conclusion of settlement proceedings.

-Source:  Indian Express


In recent years, Reverse Osmosis (RO) technology has gained widespread popularity for its effectiveness in eliminating impurities, pathogens, and reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) levels in water. While RO systems provide a high level of purification, concerns have arisen regarding the loss of essential minerals like calcium and magnesium during the filtration process.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water Purification Method
  2. Reasons for the Growing Demand for RO Water:
  3. Concerns Related to the RO Process

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water Purification Method


  • RO stands for Reverse Osmosis, a water purification method.
  • It employs a semi-permeable membrane to remove contaminants from water.
Key Components of RO System:
  • Semi-permeable Membrane: Features tiny pores ranging from 0.0001 to 0.001 microns.
  • Pressure: Water is pushed through the membrane under pressure.
Working Mechanism:
  • Filtration: Contaminants like dissolved solids, chemicals, microorganisms, and impurities are retained by the membrane.
  • Permeation: Water molecules pass through the membrane, producing clean and purified water.
  • Comprehensive Removal: RO effectively eliminates a broad spectrum of impurities, including salts, heavy metals, bacteria, viruses, and organic compounds.
  • Residential: Used for drinking and cooking purposes.
  • Industrial: Employed in various industries to enhance water quality for specific applications.

Reasons for the Growing Demand for RO Water:

  • Water Quality Issues: Many areas, especially rural regions, grapple with poor quality groundwater or tap water, characterized by a brackish taste, unpleasant odour, and contaminants like chlorine or heavy metals.
  • Perceived Health Benefits: Consumers often perceive RO water as healthier and safer compared to untreated or municipally supplied water, driving its popularity despite limited scientific backing.
  • Convenience: Availability through purification plants and domestic RO systems, combined with easy installation and maintenance, makes RO a preferred choice.
  • Urbanisation and Population Growth: The rise in urbanisation and population increases demand, especially in areas plagued by groundwater contamination and municipal water quality issues.
  • Technological Advancements: Continuous innovations in RO technology result in more efficient and cost-effective systems, making clean water more accessible to a broader consumer base.

Concerns Related to the RO Process

Mineral Reduction:
  • Effective but De-mineralising: While RO systems excel at removing impurities, they also eliminate beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium.
  • Health Implications: The loss of these essential minerals can lead to potential health risks, particularly in areas where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent.
Studies and Findings:
  • TDS Levels: Research has shown that the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) levels drop significantly after RO treatment, often falling below the recommended 50 mg/l threshold.
  • National Observations: A nationwide study across approximately 4,000 locations revealed TDS levels as low as 25 to 30 mg/l, indicating a notable scarcity of essential minerals.
  • “Dead Water” Phenomenon: RO-treated water often exhibits TDS levels ranging from 18 to 25 mg/l, resulting in what is colloquially termed as “dead water” – suitable for non-consumptive uses like battery maintenance but unsuitable for drinking.
Health Concerns:
  • Potential Health Risks: Reduced intake of essential minerals like calcium and magnesium may contribute to various health issues such as joint pain, coronary heart disease, back pain, and vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • WHO’s Perspective: The World Health Organization has flagged concerns related to RO water consumption, citing cases where populations suffered from health complications like cardiovascular disorders and muscular cramps due to acute magnesium deficiency.

-Source:  Down To Earth


The conduct of elections in contemporary times has evolved into a complex and multifaceted endeavor, demanding meticulous planning and execution to uphold the principles of a free, fair, and inclusive electoral process. At the heart of this intricate planning lies the District Election Management Plan (DEMP), a comprehensive document crafted with statistics and analysis. The DEMP serves as a cornerstone in ensuring the seamless and efficient conduct of elections, addressing various challenges and intricacies to maintain the integrity of the democratic process.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. District Election Management Plan (DEMP)
  2. Features of the District Election Management Plan (DEMP)
  3. Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)
  4. Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

District Election Management Plan (DEMP)

  • Definition: The District Election Management Plan (DEMP) is a structured plan formulated by the Election Commission of India (ECI) to manage and oversee the electoral process at the district level.
  • Timeline: As mandated by the ECI, the DEMP should be prepared at least six months before the tentative polling day. However, updates and revisions may be required as the election date approaches.
  • Collaborative Effort: The implementation of the DEMP necessitates collaboration among various stakeholders, including election officials, administrative bodies, law enforcement agencies, and other related entities. Additionally, interactions with political parties and media are scheduled to ensure understanding and adherence to electoral guidelines.

Features of the District Election Management Plan (DEMP):

District Profile:
  • Constituency Details: A political map delineating electoral constituencies.
  • Demographic and Infrastructure Data: Key statistics concerning population, infrastructure, administrative setup, and socio-economic indicators.
Polling Station Infrastructure:
  • Facility Enhancement: Strategies aimed at enhancing the availability and accessibility of polling stations, ensuring facilities such as ramps, electricity, lighting, drinking water, toilets, and internet connectivity.
Inclusivity Measures:
  • Support for Vulnerable Groups: Special provisions for voters with disabilities (PwD) and senior citizens, including help desks, 24/7 control rooms, and home voting options.
Systematic Voters’ Education and Electoral Participation (SVEEP) Plan:
  • Objective: To augment electoral participation through strategic interventions.
  • Data-Driven Strategy: Utilization of voter turnout data to pinpoint stations with subpar or notably low turnout for targeted interventions.
  • Awareness Activities: Incorporation of social media campaigns, engagement with community and youth organizations, and pre-election events to foster awareness and participation.
Personnel Management:
  • Database Creation: Developing a comprehensive database of election personnel.
  • Categorization and Assessment: Classifying personnel by cadre and group, assessing their needs, and formulating strategies to bridge any gaps in staffing across various election roles.
Force Deployment and Security:
  • Collaborative Planning: Detailed planning and coordination with district police, including the identification of vulnerable polling stations based on historical disturbances and voter turnout.
Model Code of Conduct (MCC) Enforcement:
  • Training: Training district-level teams to enforce the MCC effectively.

Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)

Importance in Electoral Process:
  • Crucial Component: Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) play a pivotal role in ensuring the integrity, transparency, and accuracy of the electoral process.
  • Management Protocols: Effective management strategies are essential to ensure the secure storage, availability, transportation, and maintenance of EVMs and Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trails (VVPATs).
Integration with DEMP:
  • Enhanced Voter Experience: Incorporating EVM management within the District Election Management Plan (DEMP) aims to streamline the voting process, making it more organised and accessible to all citizens.
  • Broader Governance Implications: The meticulous planning, collaborative approach, and transparency embedded within the DEMP can serve as a model for broader governance, emphasising the significance of proactive planning, data-driven decision-making, and stakeholder engagement to address challenges effectively.

Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

  • Feedback Mechanism: The Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) or Verifiable Paper Record (VPR) is an auxiliary verification system employed in conjunction with EVMs to provide tangible feedback to voters.
  • Verification Process: VVPAT machines enable voters to verify that their votes have been correctly registered and allocated to the intended candidate by displaying the candidate’s name and party/individual symbol on a paper slip.
  • Instant Verification: This system offers instantaneous feedback to voters, confirming that their votes have been accurately recorded and assigned to their chosen candidate.
Historical Context in India:
  • Pilot Implementation: The VVPAT system was initially introduced on a trial basis in eight out of 543 parliamentary constituencies during the 2014 Indian general election.
  • Full-Scale Implementation: Following the successful pilot project, the VVPAT system was subsequently deployed across all 543 Lok Sabha constituencies during the 2019 Indian general election.

-Source:  Indian Express


The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) has approved eight principle-based regulations including the much-awaited Bima Sugam marketplace.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India
  2. About Bima Trinity
  3. Approvals made by IRDAI

About Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India:

  • Establishment: IRDAI was founded in 1999 as a regulatory body to safeguard the interests of insurance customers.
  • Statutory Body: It operates as a statutory body under the IRDA Act 1999 and falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance.
  • Regulatory and Development Authority: IRDAI is responsible for regulating and fostering the development of the insurance industry in India.
  • Monitoring Activities: The authority closely monitors insurance-related activities to ensure compliance with regulations and standards.
  • Legal Framework: The powers and functions of IRDAI are defined by the IRDAI Act, 1999 and the Insurance Act, 1938.

About Bima Trinity:

  • IRDAI is also planning to launch Bima Trinity – Bima Sugam, Bima Vistar, Bima Vaahaks – in collaboration with general and life insurance firms to make insurance activities hassle free.
  • Bima Trinity is a multifaceted insurance initiative that encompasses key components: Bima Sugam, Bima Vistar, and Bima Vaahaks.
  • These components work together to provide simplified insurance processes, comprehensive coverage, and women-centric empowerment.
Bima Sugam:
  • Bima Sugam is a unified platform that brings insurers and distributors together.
  • It offers customers a convenient portal for purchasing policies, making service requests, and settling claims.
  • This platform streamlines the insurance experience by integrating various functions into one accessible platform.
Bima Vistar:
  • Bima Vistar is a comprehensive bundled policy that covers various aspects of life, health, property, and accidents.
  • It provides defined benefits for each risk category, ensuring prompt claim payouts without the need for surveyors.
  • By offering a wide range of coverage, Bima Vistar aims to provide customers with comprehensive protection against various risks.
Bima Vaahaks:
  • Bima Vaahaks are a women-centric workforce operating at the Gram Sabha level.
  • Their main objective is to educate and convince women about the advantages of comprehensive insurance, specifically Bima Vistar.
  • Bima Vaahaks address concerns, emphasize the benefits of insurance, and empower women to enhance their financial security.
  • By focusing on women, Bima Vaahaks aim to increase awareness and access to insurance among this demographic.

Approvals made by IRDAI

The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) has been proactive in implementing regulatory changes to strengthen the insurance sector and safeguard the interests of policyholders. Here’s a summary of the key approvals made by IRDAI:

Bima Sugam – Insurance Electronic Marketplace Regulations, 2024
  • Objective: To establish a digital public infrastructure named Bima Sugam.
  • Purpose: Empower and safeguard policyholders’ interests and achieve the vision of “Insurance for All” by 2047.
Corporate Governance for Insurers Regulations, 2024
  • Objective: Establish a robust governance framework for insurers, clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of the board and management.
  • Significance: This marks the first instance where governance aspects under existing guidelines have been notified in the form of regulations, aiming to enhance transparency and accountability within the insurance sector.
Insurance Products Regulations, 2024
  • Objective: Consolidate six existing regulations into a unified framework.
  • Purpose: Enable insurers to respond more swiftly to evolving market demands, enhance the ease of conducting business, and boost insurance penetration.
Registration and Operations of Foreign Reinsurers Branches & Lloyd’s India Regulations, 2024
  • Objective: Consolidate two regulations to foster the systematic development of the reinsurance sector in India.
  • Purpose: Promote orderly growth, harmonize the existing legal and regulatory framework, and attract foreign reinsurance players to establish a presence in India.
Other Regulatory Changes:
  • Rural Obligations: The unit of measurement for rural obligations has been revised to the gram panchayat.
  • Social Sector: The scope of the social sector has been expanded to include cardholders and beneficiaries under various schemes, aiming to extend insurance coverage to a wider demographic.
  • Motor Third-Party (TP) Insurance: The unit of measurement for Motor TP has been modified to focus on the renewal of coverage for goods and passenger-carrying vehicles, as well as tractors, streamlining the insurance process and ensuring comprehensive coverage for policyholders.

-Source: The Hindu


Kerala’s move towards an alternate model for the rollout of smart electricity meters, effectively jettisoning the Centre’s Rs 3 lakh crore smart meters project, comes as a spanner in the works for the Union Government scheme.


GS II: Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is a Smart Meter?
  2. About Smart Meter National Programme (SMNP)
  3. Significance and Benefits of Smart Meters

What is a Smart Meter?

  • A smart meter is an advanced metering device used for recording the consumption of electricity and measuring voltage levels.
  • Unlike traditional meters that record consumption manually, smart meters transmit consumption data at regular intervals, typically every 15 minutes or hourly, to utility providers.
  • Smart meters are internet-enabled devices that allow for two-way communication between consumers and utility providers, enabling real-time monitoring of energy consumption, accurate billing, and enhanced operational efficiency.

About Smart Meter National Programme (SMNP):

  • The Smart Meter National Programme (SMNP) is an initiative by the government of India aimed at promoting the adoption and installation of smart meters across the country to improve the billing and collection efficiencies of distribution companies (DISCOMs).
  • The programme aims to replace 25 crore conventional meters with smart meters in India, thereby facilitating the transition to a modern, efficient, and digitally enabled power distribution system.
  • The implementation of the SMNP is entrusted to Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture of four National Public Sector Enterprises: NTPC Limited, PFC, REC, and POWERGRID, established under the Ministry of Power.
  • The roll-out of smart meters under the SMNP is based on the Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, wherein EESL bears all the capital and operational expenditure, with zero upfront investment required from states and utilities.
  • EESL recovers the cost of smart meters through the monetization of energy savings, resulting from enhanced billing accuracy, avoided meter reading costs, and other operational efficiencies, thereby ensuring a sustainable and self-financing model for the programme.
  • The installation of smart meters is carried out in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA), ensuring compliance with technical standards and interoperability requirements.

Significance and Benefits of Smart Meters:

  • Enhanced Consumer Engagement: Smart meters empower consumers with real-time access to their energy consumption data, enabling them to make informed decisions, optimize energy usage, and reduce electricity bills.
  • Operational Efficiency and Demand Management: For utilities, smart meters offer valuable insights into consumption patterns, facilitating better demand forecasting, load management, and grid optimization, thereby enhancing operational efficiency and reliability of power supply.
  • Reduction of Commercial Losses: The integration of smart meters with web-based monitoring systems enables utilities to detect and address electricity theft, meter tampering, and other commercial losses promptly, thereby safeguarding revenue streams and promoting financial sustainability.
  • Enabler of Power Sector Reforms: Smart meters serve as a cornerstone for power sector reforms by promoting transparency, accountability, and efficiency in the power distribution system, fostering innovation, attracting investments, and driving digital transformation across the power value chain.

-Source:  Indian Express


Bhang, obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant or true hemp, is popularly consumed on the occasion of Holi across India.


Facts for Prelims

About Cannabis:

Geographical Distribution:

  • Cannabis is predominantly found in the Indo-Gangetic plains, encompassing regions such as Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. Additionally, it is also cultivated in the Deccan region.

Regional Names:

  • Cannabis is known by various regional names across India: Ganzai in Telugu, Ganja in Tamil, and Bangi in Kannada.

Products Derived from Cannabis:

  • The cannabis plant yields three primary products: fibre, oil, and narcotics.
Traditional and Cultural Uses:
  • Bhang: Bhang is a traditional preparation made from the seeds and leaves of the cannabis plant. The seeds and leaves are ground into a fine powder, which is then filtered and mixed with cold, flavoured milk or thandai. Bhang is especially popular during the Holi festival and is consumed as a festive drink.
Industrial and Medicinal Uses:
  • Hemp-seed Oil: Hemp-seed oil derived from cannabis is utilized in varnish industries as a substitute for linseed oil. It is also used in the manufacturing of soft soap and has various medicinal applications.
  • Veterinary Uses: As per the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the ash of cannabis is applied topically on animals’ skin to treat haematoma, a condition characterized by blood clotting outside of blood vessels.
Cultivation and Regulations:
  • Cannabis cultivation is primarily concentrated in the Chhota/Bada Bhangal region of Kangra and the Karsog area of Mandi district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • While the cultivation of cannabis for the extraction of addictive narcotics is illegal, several states permit controlled and regulated cultivation of cannabis for obtaining its fibre and seed for industrial or horticultural purposes.
    • Agricultural Uses: Treating paddy seeds with bhang has been found to enhance paddy seed germination, especially in temperate areas of Jammu and Kashmir where the temperature during nursery raising is low. Additionally, cannabis plants are employed by farmers in the Solki area of Rajouri district in Jammu and Kashmir for controlling threadworms in paddy nurseries.
    • Traditional Remedies: Cannabis leaves are heated and crushed to make a paste, which is used as a topical treatment for honey bee or wasp stings, offering relief from pain and inflammation.

-Source:  Indian Express


Telangana is presently grappling with forest fires in Tadvai region of Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary.


Facts for Prelims

About Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary:

Historical Background:

  • Established in 1953, Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary has been safeguarded as a protected area to conserve its rich biodiversity and promote ecological balance.

Geographical Location:

  • Situated near the tri-junction of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana, the sanctuary is strategically located to serve as a biodiversity hotspot, benefiting from the convergence of diverse ecological zones.

Hydrological Features:

  • The perennial river Dayyam Vagu courses through the sanctuary, bifurcating it into two distinct regions.
  • Additionally, the sanctuary is traversed by the majestic River Godavari, further enriching its aquatic biodiversity and serving as a vital water source for the resident fauna and flora.

Cultural and Festive Significance:

  • Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for hosting the Sammakkka Sarakka Jathra, one of Asia’s largest tribal festivals, which is celebrated biennially and draws a large number of devotees and tourists alike.
Vegetation and Flora:
  • Vegetation Type: The sanctuary predominantly features tropical dry deciduous vegetation, characterized by a rich diversity of plant species adapted to the seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature.
  • Prominent Flora: The sanctuary boasts a thriving ecosystem, with teak, bamboo, madhuca, and terminalia trees dominating the landscape. A unique feature of the sanctuary is the profusion of climbers that are found proliferating across its expanse, contributing to the biodiversity and ecological richness of the region.
  • Keystone Species: The sanctuary is home to several keystone species, including the Indian gaur (bison) and the giant squirrel, which play a pivotal role in maintaining the ecological balance and health of the ecosystem.
  • Biodiversity: Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary provides a sanctuary for a diverse range of wildlife, including the majestic tiger, elusive leopard, jackals, sloth bear, panther, wolf, wild dogs, chousingha (four-horned antelope), and sambar, among others. These species find refuge and thrive in the sanctuary’s protected and diverse habitats, which offer ample food, water, and shelter resources essential for their survival and reproduction.

-Source:  The Hindu

April 2024