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Current Crisis in Sudan

Context:

India has started ‘Operation Kaveri’ to evacuate its nationals owing to the Current Crisis in Sudan.

Relevance:

GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Operation Kaveri:
  2. Current Crisis in Sudan
  3. Impact of the Current Crisis in Sudan

About Operation Kaveri:

  • Indian Government undertaking rescue operation to bring back Indian citizens stranded in Sudan
  • Official data suggests approximately 4,000 Indians currently in Sudan
  • Two C-130 aircraft and navy ship INS Sumedha on standby for evacuation
Reason for Evacuation:
  • Deadly fighting between Sudanese army and paramilitary group, Rapid Support Forces (RSF)
  • Conflict reportedly resulted in several hundred deaths

Current Crisis in Sudan

Background:
  • President Omar al-Bashir overthrown by military generals in April 2019 after widespread protests.
  • Power-sharing body called Sovereignty Council established to lead Sudan to elections by end of 2023.
  • Military overthrew transitional government led by Abdalla Hamdok in October 2021.
Recent Developments:
  • General Burhan and General Dagalo became de-facto leaders of Sudan.
  • Power struggle between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) generals.
  • Preliminary deal reached in December 2021 for political transition, but negotiations hit a roadblock over RSF integration with SAF.
  • Disagreements over timetable and security sector reforms led to tensions and clashes.
  • Dagalo wanted to delay RSF integration for 10 years, while army said it should take place in the next two years.
About RSF
  • RSF stands for Rapid Support Forces
  • It is a group that evolved from Janjaweed militias which fought in the conflict in the 2000s in the Darfur region in West Sudan.
  • The RSF was created in 2013 and its forces were initially used as border guards.
  • In 2015, the RSF began sending troops to fight in the war in Yemen alongside Saudi and Emirati forces.
  • It has been accused of committing human rights abuses in various states including South Kordofan and the Blue Nile.
  • In a 2015 report, Human Rights Watch described its forces as “men with no mercy”.

Impact of the Current Crisis in Sudan

  • The conflict between the army and RSF may make Sudan’s transition to democracy more difficult.
  • There is a risk that the tussle could escalate into a wider conflict leading to the country’s collapse.
  • Sudan’s struggling economy, battered by hyperinflation and massive foreign debt, has been further impacted by the crisis.
  • Billions of dollars in international support and debt relief were frozen after the ouster of the Hamdok government.
  • The conflict may spill over into neighboring countries and destabilize the region, particularly Chad and South Sudan.
  • There is a risk of major external intervention if the fighting continues, and refugees from Sudan’s contested areas have already fled to Chad.

-Source: The Hindu


March 2024
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