1. Development process and development industry
2. Civil Society
What is Development and Development Process?
A multitude of meanings have been attached to the term development. It is mostly confounded with economic growth. Also, larger meanings such as social development, sustainable development and human development are attributed to it.
In simple terms, Development is ‘bringing about social change that allows people to achieve their human potential’.
|Amartya Sen has given the concept of development a new dimension. He views development as a political process. According to Sen, Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency.|
Dimensions of Development
• Development as a political process:
It is regarded as the something that is done by some agency (state or development organization) for others. It is called political process as it raises questions about who has the power to do what to whom.
• Human Development:
Sen has been flag bearer of this approach. He considers economic growth as measure of development a deeply flawed and inadequate approach. He redefined development in terms that include human rights as a constitutive part and all worthwhile processes of social change are simultaneously rights-based and economically grounded.
His capability approach focuses on the well being of those at bottom of the society, not on the efficiency of those at the top.
• Sustainable Development:
“Our Common Future”, also called Brundtland Report defines Sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
To achieve it, UN has established Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a wide ranging targets – to be achieved by 2030. The goals and targets are universal. Reaching the goals requires action on all fronts – governments, businesses, civil society and people everywhere all have a role to play.
• Economic Development:
Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. It is different from economic growth in a sense that it involves both quantitative and qualitative change.
• Social Development: Social development means investing in people. It requires the removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward their dreams with confidence and dignity.
It is about refusing to accept that people who live in poverty will always be poor. It is about helping people so they can move forward on their path to self-sufficiency.
In India context, it becomes very important as social barriers like caste system proves to be fetters to realize one’s potential and enjoy social freedom. Removal of such barrier through state action is important part of social development.
What are Civil Societies?
According to the World Bank, Civil Society refers to refers to a wide array of organizations,community groups, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], labour unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations and foundations.
• When mobilized, civil society – sometimes called the “third sector” (after government and commerce) – has the power to influence the actions of elected policy-makers and businesses.
• Examples of well-known civil society organizations include Amnesty International, the International Trade Union Confederation, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Greenpeace and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC).
Following representation illustrate various factors that are important for survival and sustainability of civil society.
Civil Society in India
• Civil society derives its strength from the Gandhian tradition of volunteerism, but today, it expresses itself in many different forms of activism. In independent India, the initial role played by the voluntary organizations started by Gandhi and his disciples was to fill in the gaps left by the government in the development process.
• The volunteers organized handloom weavers in villages to form cooperatives through which they could market their product directly and get better price. AMUL is the product of such cooperative movement.
• Civil Society plays a crucial role in the good governance. As India is not a participative democracy but a representative democracy, government takes all major decisions by itself. Civil Society act as interface of interaction between the government and the governed.
• Civil society’s functional contribution to good governance could be:
o Watchdog — against violation of human rights and governing deficiencies.
o Advocate — of the weaker sections’ point of view.
o Agitator — on behalf of aggrieved citizens.
o Educator — of citizens on their rights, entitlements and responsibilities and the government about the pulse of the people.
o Service provider — to areas and people not reached by official efforts or as government’s agent.
o Mobiliser — of public opinion for or against a programme or policy.
• Civil society acts through ‘social capital’— the capacity of people to act together willingly in their common long-term interest. Social capital is strong in a homogeneous, egalitarian society.
Types of Civil societies in India
Based on the law under which the CSOs operate and the kind of activities they take up, civil society groups in our country can be classified into following broad categories (as given in 2nd ARC):
• Registered Societies formed for specific purposes
• Charitable organisations and Trusts
• Local Stakeholders Groups, Microcredit and Thrift Enterprises, SHGs
• Professional Self-Regulatory Bodies
• Bodies without having any formal organisational structure
• Government promoted Third Sector organisations
However, a broader classification including all non-government and not-for-profit organizations can be:
• Civil rights advocacy organizations: to promote human rights of specific social groups e.g. women, migrants, disabled, HIV, sex workers, Dalit people, tribal people, and the likes.
• Civil liberties advocacy organizations: to promote individual civil liberties and human rights of all citizens, rather than focusing on particular social group.
• Community based organizations, citizen’s groups, farmers’ cooperatives: to increase citizen’s participation on public policy issues so as to improve the quality of life in a particular community.
• Business and industry chambers of commerce: to promotion policies and practices on business.
• Labour unions: to promote the rights of employees and workers.
• International peace and human rights organizations: to promote peace and human rights.
• Media, communication organization: to produce, disseminate, or provide production facilities in one or more media forms; it includes television, printing and radio.
• National resources conservation and protection organizations: to promote conservation of natural resources, including land, water, energy, wildlife and plant resources, for public use.
• Private and public foundations: to promote development through grant- making and partnership.
• Also the Civil society includes: Political Parties; Religious Organizations; Housing, slum dwellers and resident welfare associations.
National Policy on Voluntary Sector
National Policy on Voluntary Sector 2007 is a commitment to encourage, enable and empower an independent, creative and effective voluntary sector, so that it can contribute to the social, cultural and economic advancement of the people of India.