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Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

Focus: GS III- Science and Technology

Why in News?

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology said that EOS-02 satellite will be launched in second quarter of 2022.

Earth Observation Satellites

  • An Earth Observation Satellite or Earth Remote Sensing Satellite is a satellite used or designed for Earth Observance (EO) from orbit, including spy satellites and similar ones intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, cartography and others.
  • The most common type are Earth imaging satellites, that take satellite images, analogous to aerial photographs; some EOS satellites may perform remote sensing without forming pictures, such as in GNSS radio occultation.
  • The first occurrence of satellite remote sensing can be dated to the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the Soviet Union in 1957.


  • Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites.
  • Currently 13 operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit – RESOURCESAT-1, 2, 2A CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, and *four* in Geostationary orbit- INSAT-3D, Kalpana & INSAT 3A, INSAT -3DR.
  • The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and disaster management.

Microsat 2A (EOS 02)

  • It is a small Indian earth observing satellite developed by ISRO as a test payload for the maiden SSLV launch.
  • It is expected to meet the increasing user demands for cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural management, coastal land use and regulation, utilities mapping, development and various other GIS applications.
  • The mass of the spacecraft is 142 kg and it will be placed at an altitude of 350 km.
  • The mission life of the satellite is 10 months.

The details of the satellites included in the EOS series are as follows

  • EOS-01: Earth Observation satellite meant for Agriculture, Forestry & disaster management support
  • EOS-02: Technology demonstration satellite for various new technologies with applications that include agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology etc. and forming the payload for SSLV-1.
  • EOS-03 : First Agile Earth Observation satellite in Geostationary orbit and applications which include near real time imaging, quick monitoring of natural disasters, spectral signatures for agriculture, forestry etc.
  • EOS-04 : Radar Imaging satellite meant to provide high quality images under all weather conditions for applications such as Agriculture, Forestry & Plantations, Soil Moisture & Hydrology and Flood Mapping.
  • EOS-05 : Earth Observation Satellite in the Geostationary Orbit.
  • EOS-06 : Earth Observation satellite meant for applications, which include ocean related services and advisories towards potential fishing zone forecast , ocean state forecast.
June 2024