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Ebola Virus Disease

Context:

An outbreak of Ebola has been declared in Uganda following the confirmation of a relatively rare Sudan strain case.

Relevance:

GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Ebola Virus Disease
  2. How does it spread?
  3. What are the symptoms?
  4. How can it be diagnosed?
  5. Treatment

About Ebola Virus Disease

  • The first instances of the disease, formerly known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, were discovered in Guinea in December 2013.
  • Later, the illness spread to the nearby countries of Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  • Bundibugyo, Sudan, and Zaire are three of the six strains that have historically caused significant outbreaks.

How does it spread?

  • The Pteropodidae family of fruit bats is regarded to be a natural host for the Ebola virus.
  • The virus travels from human to human and is acquired by people from wild animals (through broken skin or mucous membranes).

What are the symptoms?

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Sore throat

This is followed by:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Rash

How can it be diagnosed?

  • Clinically separating EVD from other infectious disorders such malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis can be challenging.
  • Numerous pregnancy symptoms and Ebola disease symptoms are remarkably similar.
  • The following diagnostic techniques are used to confirm that symptoms are brought on by Ebola virus infection:
    • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody capture (ELISA)
    • RT-PCR assay (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)
Treatment:
  • The Ervebo vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting people from the species Zaire ebolavirus
  • Two monoclonal antibodies (Inmazeb and Ebanga) were approved for the treatment of Zaire ebolavirus (Ebolavirus) infection in adults
  • Remdesivir was also tested as an Ebola treatment.

-Source: Down to Earth


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