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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 23 December 2023

  1. Sahitya Akademi Awards
  2. Security Risk Management for a Secure Future


Context:

The porous nature of literary boundaries is exemplified by the Sahitya Akademi awards, a commendation that has consistently recognized writers across 24 diverse Indian languages. This year’s selection encompasses nine volumes of poetry, six novels, five short stories, three essays, and one literary analysis in languages such as Dogri, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Manipuri, Odia, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Assamese, Bodo, Bengali, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Santali, among others.

Relevance:

GS1- Art and Culture-Literature

Mains Question:

In the context of the recently announced Annual Sahitya Akademi Awards, discuss their significance for India’s vast linguistic diversity. How can the awards contribute more in the development of Indian literature? (15 Marks, 250 Words).

About the Award:

  • Established in 1954, the Sahitya Akademi award is an annual literary honor presented by Sahitya Akademi, India’s National Academy of Letters.
  • The Akademi bestows 24 awards each year for outstanding literary works in the languages it officially recognizes, including an equal number of awards for literary translations both from and into the various languages of India.
  • In addition to the 22 languages specified in the Constitution of India, the Sahitya Akademi acknowledges English and Rajasthani as languages within which its programs may be implemented.
  • Recognized as the second-highest literary honor by the Government of India, following the Jnanpith award, the Sahitya Akademi award has certain criteria for selecting awardees.
  • The author must be of Indian nationality, and the eligible book or work must constitute a remarkable contribution to the language and literature to which it pertains.
  • In cases where books exhibit equal merit, additional considerations, such as the total literary contribution and the standing of the authors, are taken into account when determining the award recipient.
  • Beyond the Sahitya Akademi award, there are other distinctions presented by the Akademi. The Sahitya Akademi Bal Sahitya Puraskar is conferred upon an author based on their overall contribution to children’s literature, focusing on books first published during the five years immediately preceding the award year. Meanwhile, the Sahitya Akademi Yuva Puraskar is linked to books published by authors aged 35 and below.

Significance of the Award:

  • The significance of this award lies in its celebration of linguistic diversity in a country where dialects shift every few kilometers, and where numerous marginalized communities and languages face the risk of extinction.
  • The implications of this recognition are substantial. In a nation where not everyone possesses the means to generate widespread publicity, a Sahitya Akademi award serves as an encouragement for writers to persist in their craft.
  • Winning authors can anticipate increased book sales and inclusion in educational curricula at schools and universities. Readers, in turn, can look forward to the discovery of literary treasures.
  • Moreover, writers awarded by the Akademi have the opportunity to be translated into other regional languages and even into English. For instance, Neelum Saran Gour, the recipient of this year’s award for her English novel “Requiem in Raga Janki,” previously honored with The Hindu Fiction Prize in 2018, can anticipate the translation of her narrative into various Indian languages, fostering a broader readership and cultural exchange.

Shortcomings faced by the Award:

  • Regrettably, the Sahitya Akademi awards, initiated in 1955, lack the immediate recognition enjoyed by prestigious prizes like the Booker Prize or the Pulitzer.
  • Established in 1954, the National Academy of Letters aimed to be the primary institution for literary dialogue, publication, and promotion across the country, encompassing literary activities in 24 Indian languages, including English.
  • While the Sahitya Akademi actively organizes lectures, readings, discussions, exchange programs, and workshops for all communities, its promotion is severely lacking, resulting in limited awareness of its programs.
  • Despite being the pinnacle, the Sahitya Akademi award is just one among various honors such as the Bal Sahitya award, the Yuva Puraskar, and the Bhasha Samman (translation prize). Unfortunately, there is insufficient effort to promote these activities.
  • The Akademi’s website is outdated and riddled with grammatical errors, and its social media presence is notably inadequate. Despite producing numerous affordable publications, they are challenging to access.

Conclusion:

The objective of the award is to acknowledge and promote excellence in Indian literature, while also highlighting emerging literary trends. In an era where children are increasingly drawn to screens and losing their reading habits, the Sahitya Akademi, with its extensive network, should undertake more initiatives to disseminate information about India’s rich literary tradition.



Context:

GenAI represents a transformative shift in cybersecurity, leveraging its ability to emulate human understanding and learning. It holds the promise of not only enhancing IT security but also preventing potential new vulnerabilities. It can serve as a valuable ally in safeguarding IT environments, although there is also the potential for creating new attack vectors.

Relevance:

GS-3

  • IT & Computers
  • Growth & Development
  • Robotics
  • Industrial Policy
  • Scientific Innovations and Discoveries
  • Artificial Intelligence

Mains Question:

While on the one hand, GenAI is a security risk, on the other it promises improved threat detection and predictive capabilities. Comment. (10 Marks, 150 Words).

About GenAI:

  • GAI, a rapidly expanding sector within the field of AI, is dedicated to producing fresh content, such as images, audio, text, etc., by applying learned patterns and rules derived from data.
  • The surge in GAI’s prominence can be linked to the advancements in generative models, particularly Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and Variational Autoencoders (VAEs).
  • These models undergo training on extensive datasets, enabling them to generate novel outputs that closely resemble the patterns observed in the training data. For instance, a GAN trained on facial images can produce synthetic images of faces that exhibit realistic features.
  • While GAI is commonly associated with technologies like ChatGPT and deep fakes, its initial applications were in automating repetitive procedures related to digital image and audio correction.
  • Arguably, since machine learning and deep learning inherently involve generative processes, they can be considered forms of GAI as well.

Adoption of GenAI:

  • The Dell Technologies Generative AI Pulse Survey indicates that 37% of IT decision-makers express some hesitancy within their organizations regarding the adoption of GenAI. Security concerns rank among the top five factors contributing to this hesitancy.
  • According to the Dell Technologies Innovation Index report for 2023, only 34% of Indian businesses are currently implementing a holistic end-to-end security strategy encompassing both hardware- and software-based protections.
  • While the industry addresses the risks associated with GenAI, it also holds promise as a valuable asset in cybersecurity.
  • GenAI’s ability to analyze vast amounts of security data, make predictions, and continuously learn allows cybersecurity teams to better address threats.
  • Automation can transform how security is approached, especially in areas like prevention and detection control. Automating routine cybersecurity tasks enables security teams to focus on more strategic initiatives.

Way Forward:

  • Addressing the risks associated with GenAI is crucial as its capabilities expand. The speed and automation of GenAI can be exploited by hackers to uncover vulnerabilities rapidly, evolve malware in real-time, and craft more sophisticated phishing emails and digital spoofing.
  • Securing GenAI begins by establishing a trust-rooted infrastructure, beginning at the device level and extending to data and user access.
  • Robust access control measures are essential to prevent unauthorized access and potential misuse. To secure data, measures such as data classification, encryption, and secure data storage and transmission must be in place.
  • Human involvement is critical for regular audits, identifying system anomalies, mitigating bias, and adhering to ethical guidelines.
  • Content creation, often overlooked in the context of GenAI and cybersecurity, becomes relevant for security awareness training.
  • Leveraging GenAI for personalized training modules based on user roles, past behaviors, and common threats can help reduce human error, a significant factor in security incidents.

Conclusion:

Taking an optimistic view, throughout human history, we have managed the risks of innovation while advancing human progress. The key lies in harnessing the benefits of GenAI while proactively addressing risks through robust security measures, continuous monitoring, and a flexible, evolving approach to data privacy and ethics. As we enter the GenAI era, the relationship between AI and cybersecurity is expected to continue evolving symbiotically.


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