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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 23 October 2023


  1. Restoring the Ecological Health of the Himalayas
  2. Mental Health in a Changing Tech Landscape

Restoring the Ecological Health of the Himalayas


The environmental devastation witnessed in the Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim has reignited discussions about the region’s “carrying capacity.” In response to a petition filed by a retired Indian Police Service officer, the Supreme Court of India has called upon the Union government to propose a plan for determining the carrying capacity of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), which includes its towns and cities.


GS3- Environment

Mains Question:

“The Himalayas are more than just India’s natural boundaries; they symbolise an incredibly diverse and essential ecosystem.” In the light of this statement discuss the importance of the Himalayan region and the challenges in preserving its ecology and environment.

Directions given by the government in this regard:

  • According to the affidavit submitted by the Ministry of Environment, the Director of the G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment should spearhead the assessment of carrying capacity, encompassing all 13 Himalayan states and Union Territories.
  • Additionally, it suggests the formation of a technical support group comprising nominees from various institutions and government bodies.
  • The government has also urged the court to instruct the Himalayan states and Union Territories to establish committees led by their respective Chief Secretaries, with members chosen at the Chief Secretary’s discretion.

Carrying Capacity:

  • In technical terms, the carrying capacity of a region represents the maximum population size that an ecosystem or environment can support sustainably over a specific period without causing significant harm to its natural resources and overall well-being.
  • This concept is essential in managing the balance between human activities and the preservation of natural ecosystems to ensure long-term sustainability.

Challenges in restoring the ecological health of the Himalayas

  • While the Union government has initiated various development programs in the IHR, such as the National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem and guidelines on “Carrying Capacity in the IHR,” there has been limited progress.
  • The Ministry of Environment and Forests has reminded all states to submit action plans on carrying capacity, but few have complied.
  • Failures in the past can be attributed to flawed recommendations and a lack of focus on sustainable development that involves citizens.
  • The current suggestion primarily focuses on the G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment, but other institutions should have an equal say in policy-making.
  • The entire Himalayan region, rather than just towns and cities, should be the primary concern, with an emphasis on “Sustainable Population” for the different Himalayan states.


Assessing the overall sustainable capacity of the environment, including all biological species, food, habitat, water, ecology, and agriculture, is necessary. The expert committee should concentrate on the social aspects and population sustainability of the states and include adequate citizen representation, especially from panchayats and urban local bodies. Engaging with the people and building sustainable solutions is vital, considering the concerns raised by residents about hydropower and highway projects in the IHR that have been ignored, leading to the observed consequences.

Mental Health in a Changing Tech Landscape


Technological advancements have impacted nearly every aspect of our lives, offering increased convenience, safety, and a world of opportunities. Yet, the tech landscape continues to evolve at a remarkable pace. Adapting to the fast-paced changes in our world can be overwhelming for many individuals. Supporting people in their professional roles can result in improved business well-being.


GS2- Health

Mains Question:

There is a need to add a new definition of the ‘Future of Work’ that prioritizes mental wellness for all employees. Analyse in the context of a changing tech landscape. (15 marks, 250 words).

Mental Health in a tech dominated environment:

  • In an always-connected, digitally driven world, it’s hard to ignore the feeling of being constantly bombarded with information, notifications, and social media updates.
  • In such circumstances, it becomes imperative to place a strong emphasis on personal well-being, with a particular focus on mental health.
  • This is a topic that requires more frequent and open discussion.
  • Given that a significant portion of our day is spent at work, organizations play a crucial role in supporting their employees’ well-being.

Here are several ways in which companies can create a workplace that prioritizes the health of their staff:

  1. Leading by example: Initiating a people-centric approach is essential, and this should start at the highest levels of leadership. When leaders set the tone and openly discuss mental health topics and experiences, it fosters an environment where employees feel secure, supported, and understood.
  2. Thoughtful policies and practices: Organizations should implement programs and policies that promote psychological safety, work-life balance, and flexible options to accommodate diverse needs. Employees should have the freedom to disconnect when necessary and focus on their health.
  3. A holistic well-being approach: Well-being encompasses various aspects, and concentrating solely on mental health is only a partial victory. Organizations should adopt a holistic approach that addresses mental, physical, social, and financial aspects of well-being. A healthy body, a supportive social network, and financial security all contribute to overall well-being, and these considerations should guide employee policies and practices.
  4. Access to mental health services: Finding the right mental health professional can be a challenge for those in need. Therefore, it’s crucial to offer easy access to quality mental health services, such as counseling, to simplify and facilitate employees’ initial steps in their mental health journeys. For instance, at Mastercard, free counseling services for employees and their dependents is provided, along with a confidential 24/7 emergency hotline for critical support.
  5. Promoting awareness and support: Regular sessions and communication about mental health not only aid those who require assistance but also raise awareness and sensitivity toward mental health topics. Empowering individuals to become supportive allies to their colleagues is a fundamental way to cultivate a culture of well-being.


In light of the rapid, complex, and interconnected world we live in, it’s important to take a step back, take breaks, and acknowledge that different people have different paces. We should all contribute to our own and others’ well-being journeys. It’s worth noting that besides personal benefits, happier employees undoubtedly lead to a healthier business and a healthier society. There is a need to redefine the “Future of Work” to prioritize mental wellness for all employees.

July 2024