Ahead of COP28, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released a report titled ‘Emissions Gap Report 2023: Broken Record — Temperatures hit new highs, yet world fails to cut emissions (again)’.
GS III: Environment and Ecology
Dimensions of the Article:
- About Emissions Gap Report
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
- Major Insights from the Emissions Gap Report 2023: Addressing Climate Challenges
About Emissions Gap Report
- The UNEP’s Emissions Gap Report gives a yearly review of the difference between where greenhouse emissions are predicted to be in 2030 and where they should be to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.
- The annual report from UNEP measures the gap between anticipated emissions and levels consistent with the Paris Agreement goals of limiting global warming this century to well below 2°C and pursuing 1.5°C.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
- The UNEP is a leading global environmental authority established in 1972 and Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.
- It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
- It sets the global environmental agenda, promotes sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for global environment protection.
- The UNEP Publishes:
- Emission Gap Report,
- Global Environment Outlook,
- Invest into Healthy Planet.
Major Insights from the Emissions Gap Report 2023: Addressing Climate Challenges
- 86 days recorded with temperatures exceeding 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels in 2023.
- September marked the hottest month ever, surpassing the previous record by an unprecedented 0.5°C.
Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
- Emissions increased by 1.2% from 2021 to 2022, reaching a new record of 57.4 gigatons of CO2 equivalent (GtCO2e).
- All sectors rebounded from pandemic-induced drops, except for transport, exceeding 2019 levels.
- Fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes contributed two-thirds to the overall increase.
Per Capita Territorial Emissions:
- Vary significantly across countries.
- More than double the world average in Russia and the USA, while India remains under half.
- Similar levels in Brazil, the European Union, and Indonesia, slightly below the G20 average.
Emissions Gap and NDCs:
- Emissions gap defined as the difference between estimated global emissions from NDCs and those aligned with Paris Agreement goals.
- Global ambition in the next round of NDCs (2025) crucial for achieving targets consistent with below 2°C and 1.5°C pathways.
Climate Change Mitigation Efforts:
- Current policies imply limiting global warming to 3°C (66% chance) throughout the century.
- Warming expected to increase post-2100 as CO2 emissions are not projected to reach net-zero levels.
- Optimistic scenario meeting conditional NDCs and net-zero pledges limits warming to 2°C.
Key Areas for Political Action:
- Setting and signaling priorities for Carbon Dioxide removal.
- Developing robust measurement, reporting, and verification systems.
- Harnessing synergies and co-benefits.
- Accelerating innovation to address climate challenges.
-Source: Indian Express