According to the Global Agricultural Productivity Report (GAP Report) 2021 Global agricultural productivity is not growing as fast as the demand for food, amid the impact of climate change.
GS-III: Agriculture (Agricultural Marketing, Food Security), GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy)
Dimensions of the Article:
- Highlights of the Global Agricultural Productivity Report
- Way Forwards suggested
Highlights of the Global Agricultural Productivity Report
- Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is growing at an annual rate of 1.36% (2020-2019) which is below the Global Agricultural Productivity Index that has set an annual target of 1.73% growth to sustainably meet the needs of consumers for food and bioenergy in 2050. (Total factor productivity captures the interaction between multiple agricultural inputs and outputs.)
- TFP growth is influenced by climate change, weather events, changes in fiscal policy, market conditions, investments in infrastructure and agricultural research and development.
Situation in Different Regions
- Drier Regions (Africa and Latin America): Climate change has slowed productivity growth by as much as 34%.
- High-Income Countries (in North America and Europe): Modest TFP growth.
- Middle Income Countries (India, China, Brazil and erstwhile Soviet republics): Strong TFP growth rates.
- Low-Income Countries (Sub-Saharan Africa): TFP is contracting by an average of 0.31% per year.
Situation in India
- India has seen strong TFP and output growth this century – The most recent data shows an average annual TFP growth rate of 2.81% and output growth of 3.17% (2010–2019.)
- By the end of the century, the mean summer temperature in India could increase by five degrees Celsius.
- This rapidly rising temperature, combined with changes in rainfall patterns, could cut yields for India’s major food crops by 10% by 2035.
- In addition to the challenges for environmental sustainability, India’s small-scale farmers face significant obstacles to economic and social sustainability.
- Of the 147 million landholdings in India, 100 million are less than two hectares in size. Nearly 90% of farmers farming less than two hectares participate in a government food ration program.
Way Forwards suggested
- Invest in agricultural research and development
- Embrace science-and-information-based technologies
- Improve infrastructure for transportation, information and finance
- Cultivate partnerships for sustainable agriculture, economic growth and improved nutrition
- Expand and improve local, regional and global trade
- Reduce post-harvest loss and food waste
-Source: The Hindu