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Global Agricultural Productivity Report (GAP Report)

Context:

According to the Global Agricultural Productivity Report (GAP Report) 2021 Global agricultural productivity is not growing as fast as the demand for food, amid the impact of climate change.

Relevance:

GS-III: Agriculture (Agricultural Marketing, Food Security), GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Highlights of the Global Agricultural Productivity Report
  2. Way Forwards suggested

Highlights of the Global Agricultural Productivity Report

  • Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is growing at an annual rate of 1.36% (2020-2019) which is below the Global Agricultural Productivity Index that has set an annual target of 1.73% growth to sustainably meet the needs of consumers for food and bioenergy in 2050. (Total factor productivity captures the interaction between multiple agricultural inputs and outputs.)
  • TFP growth is influenced by climate change, weather events, changes in fiscal policy, market conditions, investments in infrastructure and agricultural research and development.

Situation in Different Regions

  • Drier Regions (Africa and Latin America): Climate change has slowed productivity growth by as much as 34%.
  • High-Income Countries (in North America and Europe): Modest TFP growth.
  • Middle Income Countries (India, China, Brazil and erstwhile Soviet republics): Strong TFP growth rates.
  • Low-Income Countries (Sub-Saharan Africa): TFP is contracting by an average of 0.31% per year.

Situation in India

  • India has seen strong TFP and output growth this century – The most recent data shows an average annual TFP growth rate of 2.81% and output growth of 3.17% (2010–2019.)
  • By the end of the century, the mean summer temperature in India could increase by five degrees Celsius.
  • This rapidly rising temperature, combined with changes in rainfall patterns, could cut yields for India’s major food crops by 10% by 2035.
  • In addition to the challenges for environmental sustainability, India’s small-scale farmers face significant obstacles to economic and social sustainability.
  • Of the 147 million landholdings in India, 100 million are less than two hectares in size. Nearly 90% of farmers farming less than two hectares participate in a government food ration program.

Way Forwards suggested

  • Invest in agricultural research and development
  • Embrace science-and-information-based technologies
  • Improve infrastructure for transportation, information and finance
  • Cultivate partnerships for sustainable agriculture, economic growth and improved nutrition
  • Expand and improve local, regional and global trade
  • Reduce post-harvest loss and food waste

-Source: The Hindu

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