A global list by TRACE, an anti-bribery standard setting organisation, measures business bribery risk in 194 countries, territories, and autonomous and semi-autonomous regions.
GS-II: Governance (Accountability and Transparency in Governance)
Dimensions of the Article:
- About the Bribery Risk Matrix
- Highlights of the Bribery Risk Matrix 2021
- The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
- Other steps in India that help reduce corruption
About the Bribery Risk Matrix
- The Bribery Risk Matrix 2021 by TRACE, an anti-bribery standard setting organization aggregates relevant data obtained from leading public interest and international organisations, including the United Nations, World Bank, V-Dem Institute at the University of Gothenburg and World Economic Forum.
- It was originally published in 2014 to meet a need in the business community for more reliable and nuanced information about the risks of commercial bribery worldwide.
- Score is calculated on the basis of four factors:
- Enforcement and anti-bribery deterrence.
- Business interactions with the government.
- Government and civil service transparency.
- Capacity for civil society oversight which includes the media’s role.
Highlights of the Bribery Risk Matrix 2021
- North Korea, Turkmenistan, Venezuela and Eritrea pose the highest commercial bribery risk, while Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and New Zealand present the lowest.
- Over the past five years, the business bribery risk environment in the United States worsened significantly when compared with global trends.
- From 2020 to 2021, all of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries saw an increase in commercial bribery risk.
- India has slipped to 82nd position in 2021, five places down from 77th rank in 2020.
- Pakistan, China, Nepal and Bangladesh are ranked lower with lower score compared to India. However, Bhutan secured 62nd rank.
The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
- The Prevention of Corruption Act clearly criminalizes the act of giving bribes and will help check big ticket corruption by creating a vicarious liability in respect of senior management of commercial organizations.
- Under PCA, 1988 the Central Government has the power to appoint judges to investigate and try those cases where the following offences have been committed
- Offences punishable under the act
- A conspiracy to commit or an attempt to commit the offences specified under the act.
- Offences under the PCA, 1988
- Taking gratification other than legal remuneration
- Taking gratification with the purpose of influencing a public servant, through illegal and corrupt means
- Taking gratification with the purpose of wielding personal influence with public servant
- Act of criminal misconduct by the public servant
Other steps in India that help reduce corruption
- Disbursement of welfare benefits directly to the citizens under various schemes of the Government in a transparent manner through the Direct Benefit Transfer initiative.
- Implementation of E-tendering in public procurements.
- Introduction of e-Governance and simplification of procedure and systems.
- Introduction of Government procurement through the Government e- Marketplace (GeM).
-Source: The Hindu