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India’s Youth Employment Report By ILO


The International Labour Organization (ILO) recently published the Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022 report.


GS Paper 3: mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment.

Mains Question

Comment on the Indian unemployment problem. What suggestions do you have for increasing job opportunities? (150 Words)


  • The International Labour Organization (ILO) was founded in 1919 as part of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can only be achieved through social justice.
  • The ILO was designated as a United Nations specialised agency in 1946.
  • The International Labor Organization is dedicated to promoting social justice and internationally recognised human and labour rights.


  • The ILO has four strategic objectives: o Promote and realise standards, fundamental principles, and rights at work; o Increase opportunities for women and men to decent employment and income;
    • Improve the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all; and o Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.

Report on Global Youth Employment Trends

  • Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022: Investing in Transforming Futures for Young People is a report that provides an update on key youth labour market indicators and trends.
  • The report focuses on the impact of the COVID 19 crisis, as well as how targeted and sustained investments in the green, blue, digital, creative, and care economies can support a human-centered recovery and help young people find work.
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic – o The report finds that the pandemic has exacerbated the numerous labour market challenges confronting those aged 15 to 24, who have experienced a much higher percentage loss in employment than adults since early 2020.
    • The total global number of unemployed youths is expected to reach 73 million in 2022, up from 75 million in 2021 but still six million higher than the pre-pandemic level of 2019.
  • Gender Gap o Young women have a much lower employment-to-population ratio than young men (EPR).
    • In 2022, 27.4 percent of young women are expected to be employed globally, compared to 40.3 percent of young men.
    • This means that young men are nearly 1.5 times more likely to be employed than young women.
  • Regional Differences – o The recovery in youth unemployment is expected to differ between low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries.
    • Only high-income countries are expected to achieve youth unemployment rates comparable to those of 2019.
  • Meanwhile, in the other income groups, rates are expected to remain more than one percentage point higher than pre-crisis levels.
  • Green and Blue Future – o On the plus side, the report stated that young people were well-positioned to benefit from the expansion of the so-called green and blue economies, which are centred on the environment and sustainable ocean resources, respectively.
    • According to the study, an additional 8.4 million jobs for young people could be created by 2030 through green and blue investments, particularly in clean and renewable energies, sustainable agriculture, recycling, and waste management.
  • Broadband Coverage & Healthcare Sector – o The report estimates that achieving universal broadband coverage by 2030 could result in a net increase in employment of 24 million new jobs worldwide, with 6.4 million taken by young people.
    • According to the report, investments in the care sector will create 17.9 million more jobs for young people by 2030.

Key points for India

  • In India, the report found that the youth employment participation rate fell by 0.9 percentage points in the first nine months of 2021 compared to the same period in 2020.
    • The situation is especially dire for young people aged 15-20.
  • In India, school closures lasted 18 months, and only 8% of the 24 crore school-aged children in rural areas and 23% in urban areas had adequate access to online education, according to the report.
  • It went on to say that India has very low female youth labour market participation, and that Indian young women experienced greater relative employment losses than young men in 2021 and 2022.
  • It also stated that domestic work is a highly informal sector in India, with extremely low wages and young women and girls vulnerable to abuse.

December 2023