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Major Governmental Interventions for Development in Various Sectors

1. Rural Development
2. Urban Development
3. Skill Development
4. Social Security

Rural Development

Rural development involves both economic development as well as social transformation. The Ministry of Rural Development is implementing several programs through the State Governments to promote better prospects for economic development, aimed at poverty reduction, rural infrastructure habitant development, provision of basic minimum services and providing employment to marginal farmers/laborers to discourage seasonal and permanent migration to urban areas.

 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

  •  The MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
  • The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Government of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments

 National Rurban Mission (NRuM)

  • The Mission aims at development of rural growth clusters which have latent potential for growth in all states. It would trigger overall development in the region.
  • These clusters would be developed by provisioning of economic activities, developing skills & local entrepreneurship and providing infrastructure amenities. The Rurban Mission will thus develop a cluster of Smart Villages.

 Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)

  • The he Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awaas) is based on the pattern of the Indira Awaas Yojana and will be implemented in the rural areas throughout the country.
  • The target group for houses under the scheme will be the people who are living Below the Poverty Line in the rural areas, belonging to Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded laborers and non SC/ST categories

 Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

  • The scheme aimed at providing 5 crores LPG connections to BPL families. The goal had to achieved within 3 years.

 Deen Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

  •  This scheme focuses on feeder separation (rural households & agricultural) and strengthening of sub-transmission & distribution infrastructure including metering at all levels in rural areas. This will help in providing round the clock power to rural households and adequate power to agricultural consumers.

 National Rural Livelihoods Mission

  • Deendayal Antodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) that seeks to alleviate rural poverty through building sustainable community institutions of the poor. The centrally sponsored programme is implemented in partnership with the State governments.

 Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna

  • The Rural Road Connectivity is not only a key component of Rural Development by promoting access to economic and social services and thereby generating increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities in India, it is also as a result, a key ingredient in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction.

 Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojna

  •  Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) is a village development project launched by Government of India in October 2014, under which each Member of Parliament will take the responsibility of developing physical and institutional infrastructure in three villages by 2019.

 Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojna

  • In pursuance to the goal – Housing for all by 2022, the rural housing scheme Indira Awas Yojana has been revamped to Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin and approved during March 2016.
  • Under the scheme, financial assistance is provided for construction of pucca house to all houseless and households living in dilapidated houses.

Urban Development

India has the second largest urban population in the world and by 2050, around 50% of India’s population i.e. 814 million is expected to live in urban areas. Given this scenario, the present infrastructure and amenities in cities and towns are not adequate to address the expanding urbanization process.

Several initiatives were launched by the government to promote urban infrastructure in the country.

 The Smart Cities Mission

  •  The Smart Cities Mission is a major urban renewal program launched by the Government to develop and upgrade living conditions and infrastructure in selected 100 cities all over the country.
  • Objective of the programme is to modernize cities by providing core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions.

 Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) Project

  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) along with smart cities were jointly planned and launched by the government to transform urban living conditions through infrastructure upgradation.
  • AMRUT is aimed at transforming 500 cities and towns into efficient urban living spaces over a period of five years. Ministry of Urban Development has selected the five hundred cities with the help of state governments.

SDG and Urban Development

  • Goal IX: To make cities inclusive, safe and resilient

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) or Housing for All by 2022 Mission

  • The ‘Housing for All by 2022’ under the scheme of “Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Housing for All (Urban)” launched by the central government aims to provide housing to all urban people by 2022.
  • It provides central assistance to States and UTs for constructing houses to all eligible sections by concentrating on urban slums and economically weaker sections. Hence, slum rehabilitation and affordable housing to Economically Weaker Sections are the major features of the project.

 Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY)

  • The HRIDAY scheme is launched for the holistic development of heritage cities. It aims to preserve and revitalize the unique character of heritage cities in India.
  • For the first phase of the programme Rs. 500 crore is allocated with full funding by the central government. Twelve cities—including Ajmer, Amaravati, Amritsar etc. are identified for the project.

Skill Development

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna

It is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE).

The objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood.

 Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

• According to Census 2011, India has 55 million potential workers between the ages of 15 and 35 years in rural areas. At the same time, the world is expected to face a shortage of 57 million workers by 2020.

• Enable Poor and Marginalized to Access Benefits: Demand led skill training at no cost to the rural poor.

• Shifting Emphasis from Training to Career Progression

Financial Assistance for Skill Training of Persons with Disabilities

 The scheme covers Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) with not less than 40% disability and having a disability certificate to this effect issued by a competent medical authority.

National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme

 The main objective of the scheme is to promote apprenticeship training and to increase the engagement of apprentices from present 2.3 lakh to 50 lakh cumulatively by 2020.

 Skill Development for Minorities

Following are the few schemes implemented by Ministry of Minority Affairs that aim for skill development.

• USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/ Crafts for Development):

This aims to preserve the rich heritage of traditional arts/crafts of minorities.

• Nai Manzil: The scheme aims to benefit the minority youth who do not have a formal school leaving certificate, in order to provide them formal education and skills and enable them to seek better employment in the organized sector and thus to equip them for better lives.

• Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills (MANAS): MANAS provides an all India level training framework based upon tie-ups with Local/National/International training organizations on PPP model, for imparting training to the Minority population in skill sets that are in line with emerging market demand.

Social Security

 National Social Assistance Program

• The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Article 41 and 42 of the Constitution recognizing the concurrent responsibility of the Central and the State Governments in the matter.

• National Social Assistance Programme is a social security and welfare programme to provide support to aged persons, widows, disabled persons and bereaved families on death of primary bread winner, belonging to below poverty line households.

• The NSAP at its inception in 1995 had three components namely

o National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)

o National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

o National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS)

 National Pension System

• The National Pension System (NPS) is a voluntary, defined contribution retirement savings scheme designed to enable the subscribers to make optimum decisions regarding their future through systematic savings during their working life.

• These contributions would grow and accumulate over the years, depending on the returns earned on the investment made.

 Atal Pension Yojna

• Atal Pension Yojana (APY) addresses the old age income security of the working poor and the longevity risks among the workers in unorganised sector. It encourages the workers in unorganised sector to voluntarily save for their retirement.

 Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojna

• It is available to people in the age group of 18 to 50 and having a bank account.

• People who join the scheme before completing 50 years can, however, continue to have the risk of life cover up to the age of 55 years’ subject to payment of premium.

 Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojna

• It is available to people in age group 18 to 70 years with bank account. With a premium of Rs. 12 per annum, it covers following risks:

o Death – Rs 2 Lakh

o Total and irrecoverable loss of both eyes or loss of use of both hands or feet or loss of sight of one eye and loss of use of hand or foot – 2 Lakh.

o Total and irrecoverable loss of sight of one eye or loss of use of one hand or foot – 1 Lakh.

National Food Security Act, 2013

 The objective of the act to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity.

March 2024