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Mathematics Is The Music of Reasons – UPSC Mains Essay 2023


  • Interwoven Realities: Mathematics is not just an esoteric play of numbers; it weaves a tapestry that touches every corner of our existence.
  • Thesis Statement: The symphony of mathematics plays out not only in financial instruments but also across India’s rich tapestry of culture, history, nature, and various other arenas.


1. Economic and Financial Overture:

  • CRR and Money Multiplier: Just as a maestro leads an orchestra, the central bank regulates money in circulation. The CRR influences how much banks can lend, and thus indirectly, the money multiplier effect orchestrates the liquidity and overall economic health.
  • Stock Market Analysis: The Price to Earnings (P/E) ratio is akin to measuring the tempo of a company’s growth. It aids investors in discerning if a stock, or even an IPO, is undervalued or overpriced, crafting investment symphonies.
  • Taxation Dynamics: The Laffer Curve plays the balancing act, highlighting the relationship between tax rates and the total tax revenue. Similarly, while the government designs the GST, it consults the revenue-neutral rate to ensure the economy doesn’t hit a sour note.

2. Historical and Cultural Echoes:

  • Indian Architecture: Ancient structures like the Konark Sun Temple showcase intricate geometric designs, echoing the timelessness of mathematical beauty.
  • Indian Classical Music: The rhythm (Taal) is a testament to the mathematical patterns. Seven beats (Rupak Taal) or sixteen beats (Teen Taal) all have an underlying mathematical cadence.

3. Socio-economic Resonances:

  • Gini Coefficient & Lorentz Curve: These tools provide a harmonic understanding of inequality in society, gauging the distribution of income or wealth among the population.
  • Human Development and Demographics: Indices like HDI harmonize factors like life expectancy, education, and per capita income to gauge a nation’s health. Meanwhile, the demographic dividend, IMR-MMR, and census data provide insights into the population’s composition and needs.

4. Technological Crescendos:

  • Space Ventures: India’s Mangalyaan mission to Mars relied heavily on mathematical models for trajectory plotting, fuel calculations, and orbital insertion.
  • Computer Sciences: Algorithms, the backbone of modern computational processes, from AI-driven predictions to basic operations, are symphonies written in the language of mathematics.

5. Global and Local Influences:

  • NEER and REER Modelling: These models determine how the rupee fares against a basket of other currencies, influencing India’s trade balance and foreign policy decisions.
  • Mahalanobis’ Contribution: Statistician Mahalanobis’s influence in developing the second five-year plan highlighted the crucial role of statistical models in nation-building.


  • Universality of Mathematics: From the beating heart of nature’s wonders to the crescendos of modern technology, mathematics is the eternal rhythm driving the world.
  • Parting Thought: As India stands at the intersection of tradition and modernity, it is this unifying language of mathematics that will continue to inform, shape, and guide her trajectory.

April 2024