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Mumps- A Contagious Paramyxovirus Infection

Context:

Recently, Mumps cases in children are on rise in the states of Maharashtra and Telangana which has become a cause of concern for parents.

Relevance:

GS II: Health

About Mumps: A Contagious Paramyxovirus Infection

Causative Agent:

  • Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a paramyxovirus.
Symptoms:
  • Gland Swelling:
    • It can cause swelling of the parotid glands on each side of the face, leading to tenderness or pain.
  • Age Group Affected:
    • It is an acute disease that commonly infects children and young adults.
Transmission:
  • Virus Host and Spread:
    • Humans are the only known host for the mumps virus.
    • Spread occurs through direct contact or airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract of infected individuals.
Symptoms and Progression:
  • Incubation Period:
    • After an incubation period of 2 to 4 weeks, mumps manifests with non-specific symptoms like myalgia, headache, malaise, and low-grade fever.
  • Gland Swelling:
    • Within days, swelling of the parotid salivary glands occurs, affecting other salivary glands in 10% of cases.
  • Disease Nature:
    • Mumps is typically a mild, self-limiting disease that resolves without complications.
  • Possible Complications:
    • Complications may include encephalitis or sensorineural deafness.
    • Orchitis, a painful inflammation of the testes, occurs in 20% of young adult males with mumps.
Treatment and Prevention:
  • No Specific Treatment:
    • There is no specific treatment for mumps, but various symptoms can be relieved with medicines.
  • Immunization:
    • Prevention involves ensuring immunization against mumps, particularly in children, as the most effective safeguard.

-Source: Hindustan Times


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