The WHO and UNICEF have released estimates for national immunisation coverage in 2022. The coverage rate for DPT3 vaccines, representing diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, in India reached a new high of 93% in 2022.
- This surpasses the pre-pandemic record of 91% in 2019 and demonstrates a significant increase from 85% in 2021.
GS II: Government Policies and Interventions
Dimensions of the Article:
- WHO and UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage
- Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)
- Mission Indradhanush
- DPT3 Vaccine
WHO and UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage:
- WHO and UNICEF review reports and data from member states to estimate national immunization coverage.
- The estimates are country-specific and reflect the performance of immunization systems.
- Global immunization services reached 4 million more children in 2022 compared to the previous year.
- Approximately 20.5 million children worldwide remained unvaccinated or under-vaccinated in 2022.
Coverage in India:
- India accounted for 1.6 million of the unvaccinated and under-vaccinated children for the DPT-3 vaccine.
- DPT vaccine protects against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus and is administered in three doses to children under 7 years old.
- India achieved 93% coverage for its 22.5 million infants in 2022.
Performance in WHO South-East Asia Region:
- The region showed the best immunization coverage improvements, mainly due to efforts in India and Indonesia.
Impact of Inequities in Immunization Coverage:
- Inequities in coverage create pockets of unvaccinated children and increase the risk of outbreaks of preventable diseases like measles and diphtheria.
Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)
- Expanded Programme on Immunization launched in 1978
- Renamed as Universal Immunization Programme in 1985 for expanded reach
- Integration with Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992
- Inclusion in National Reproductive and Child Health Programme in 1997
- Integral part of National Rural Health Mission since 2005
- Targets approximately 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually
- One of the largest public health programmes in India
- Free immunization provided against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases
- National Coverage (9 diseases):
- Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B
- Sub-national Coverage (3 diseases):
- Rotavirus diarrhoea, Pneumococcal Pneumonia, and Japanese Encephalitis
- Criteria for a child to be fully immunized
- All due vaccines as per national immunization schedule within the first year of the child’s age
- Elimination of polio in 2014
- Elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus in 2015
Mission Indradhanush (MI)
- MI was launched in December 2014
- Aims to increase full immunization coverage for children to 90%
- Focus on pockets of low immunization coverage and hard-to-reach areas
- Prioritize areas with the highest proportion of unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children
- Total of six phases of Mission Indradhanush completed
- Coverage extended to 554 districts across the country
Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI):
- Introduced in 2017
- Enhances the immunization campaign
- Seeks to achieve even higher immunization coverage levels
- The DPT vaccine is a combination vaccine that provides protection against three infectious diseases: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
- The vaccine contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, as well as either killed whole cells of the pertussis-causing bacteria or pertussis antigens.
- Administration of the DPT vaccine involves a primary dose given as part of the pentavalent vaccine, followed by two booster doses at 16-24 months and 5-6 years of age, respectively.
- Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
- It primarily affects children between the ages of 1 and 5 years, with higher incidence during colder months in temperate climates.
- Tetanus is an infection caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani.
- The bacteria produce a toxin that leads to painful muscle contractions.
- Tetanus bacteria typically enter the body through breaks in the skin.
- It does not spread from person to person.
- Pertussis, commonly known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis.
- The bacteria attach to the cilia in the upper respiratory system and release toxins, damaging the cilia and causing airway swelling.
- Pertussis can easily spread from person to person through the air.
-Source: Indian Express, The Hindu