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National Multidimensional Poverty Index


According to the ‘National Multidimensional Poverty Index: A Progress Review 2023, India has registered a significant decline of 9.89 percentage points in the number of multidimensionally poor, from 24.85% in 2015-16 to 14.96% in 2019-2021.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Findings on Multidimensional Poverty
  2. About the National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

Key Findings on Multidimensional Poverty:

Decline in Poverty:

  • Approximately 13.5 crore people have moved out of multidimensional poverty during the assessed period.
  • Rural areas have witnessed the fastest decline in poverty, from 32.59% to 19.28%, with significant progress in states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Rajasthan.
  • Delhi, Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu have the lowest number of people facing multidimensional poverty.

States with High Multidimensional Poverty:

  • Bihar, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh, along with the Union Territories, have a high percentage of the population facing multidimensional poverty.

Decrease in Urban Multidimensional Poverty:

  • Multidimensional poverty in urban areas has also seen a decrease, from 8.65% to 5.27% during the assessed period.
  • Significant Progress in Uttar Pradesh:
  • Uttar Pradesh has registered the largest decline in the number of poor, with 3.43 crore people escaping multidimensional poverty.

Reduction in MPI Value and Intensity of Poverty:

  • The MPI value has nearly halved, from 0.117 to 0.066, between 2015-16 and 2019-21.
  • The intensity of poverty has reduced from 47% to 44% during the same period.

About the National Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI):

  • The MPI is based on the latest National Family Health Survey of 2019-21 and represents the second edition of the index.


  • The report examines 12 parameters related to health, education, and standard of living to determine multidimensional poverty.
  • These parameters include nutrition, child and adolescent mortality, maternal health, years of schooling, school attendance, cooking fuel, sanitation, drinking water, electricity, housing, assets, and bank accounts.


  • The report follows the Alkire-Foster methodology, which was developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • This methodology provides a comprehensive approach to measuring multidimensional poverty by considering multiple dimensions and deprivations.

-Source: The Hindu

February 2024