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New Hit-and-Run Accident Cases


India grapples with the grim reality of being one of the world’s leading nations in road fatalities, with over 1.5 lakh lives lost annually. Among these tragedies, hit-and-run accidents stand out for their callous disregard for human life and potential for prolonged agony for victims’ families. This context sheds light on the recent controversy surrounding Section 106 of the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), the proposed new criminal code, and its proposed harsher penalties for such cases.


  • GS2 – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • GS4 – ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations, and conscience as sources of ethical guidance

Main Exam Question

Critically analyze the proposed provision of the BNS regarding harsher penalties for hit-and-run accidents. Consider the ethical and practical implications of the increased sentence, along with alternative approaches to addressing road safety. In your answer, discuss the need for balancing justice with fairness and ensuring effective implementation of the law.

Understanding the Law:

Section 106 replaces the existing Section 304A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which dealt with causing death by rash or negligent act. While the IPC capped the penalty at two years, the BNS significantly escalates it. Key provisions include:

  • Increased base penalty: Up to five years imprisonment for causing death due to rash or negligent driving.
  • Hit-and-run clause: Failure to report the accident can lead to extended imprisonment of up to 10 years and a fine.
  • Reduced liability for medical professionals: This clause, unrelated to hit-and-run, creates a separate two-year maximum sentence for registered medical practitioners in case of death during a medical procedure.
Driver Concerns and Protests:

The proposed harsher penalties, particularly the hit-and-run clause, have triggered anxiety and protests among truck drivers. Their anxieties stem from several factors:

  • Fear of lynching: In India, mob violence against suspected drivers involved in accidents is sadly not uncommon.
  • Potential for accidental non-reporting: Drivers argue that accidents can occur due to sudden mechanical failures or medical emergencies, leading to unintentional delay in reporting.
  • Lack of awareness and access to legal support: Many drivers, especially from rural areas, may not be fully aware of the new law or have access to legal guidance in case of an accident.

The Debate on Proportionality:

The proposed law ignites a vital debate on the balance between justice and fairness:

  • Justice for victims: Proponents argue that harsher penalties serve as a deterrent and ensure accountability for negligence that costs lives.
  • Fairness for drivers: Critics question the necessity of such steep sentences, especially considering the role of factors like poor road infrastructure and mechanical failures in some accidents. They argue that such harsh punishments could incentivize concealing accidents due to fear, which wouldn’t benefit victim families.

Beyond Penalties: A Comprehensive Approach:

The editorial rightly emphasizes that focusing solely on increased penalties misses the bigger picture. To truly address road safety, a comprehensive strategy is crucial:

  • Infrastructure improvements: Upgrading roads, addressing black spots, and implementing better signage are essential to prevent accidents at the source.
  • Driver training and licensing: Effective training programs and stricter licensing procedures can raise awareness and ensure responsible driving practices.
  • Public awareness campaigns: Educating the public about road safety rules and responsible behavior can encourage a culture of respect and caution on the roads.
  • Effective enforcement: Stringent implementation of traffic laws and swift action against reckless driving are crucial deterrents.

Way forward

The debate surrounding Section 106 highlights the need for a nuanced approach to tackling hit-and-run accidents. While justice for victims is paramount, simply increasing penalties without addressing underlying issues like infrastructure and driver training might create unintended consequences. Finding a balance between justice and fairness, and implementing a comprehensive safety strategy, is key to saving lives and building a safer road ecosystem for all.


March 2024