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Opinion Paper Raises Concerns about IFFCO’s Nano Liquid Urea’s Scientific Validity


A recent opinion paper in “Plant and Soil” questions the scientific validity of IFFCO’s Nano Liquid Urea. It raises doubts about the product’s efficacy and benefits, emphasizing the necessity for rigorous scientific evaluation before introducing nano fertilizers to the market.


GS III: Agriculture

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Liquid Nano Urea: Innovative Plant Nutrient
  2. Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO)
  3. Background
  4. Concerns Raised by the Paper
  5. Study Recommendations

Liquid Nano Urea: Innovative Plant Nutrient

Nanoparticle Formulation

  • Liquid Nano Urea is a novel formulation of urea, designed as nanoparticles.
  • It serves as a liquid nutrient, supplying nitrogen to plants as an alternative to traditional urea.

Urea Overview

  • Urea is a chemical nitrogen fertilizer commonly used to provide plants with nitrogen, a crucial nutrient.

Reduced Dependency and Composition

  • Liquid Nano Urea aims to replace conventional urea and potentially decrease its usage by around 50%.
  • A 500 ml bottle of Liquid Nano Urea contains 40,000 mg/L of nitrogen, equivalent to the nitrogen impact of a bag of standard urea.

Indigenous Development and Atmanirbhar Bharat

  • The formulation has been developed domestically at the Nano Biotechnology Research Centre in Kalol, Gujarat, aligning with India’s self-reliance initiatives (Atmanirbhar Bharat and Atmanirbhar Krishi).

Challenges in Urea Supply

  • India currently relies on imports to fulfill its urea requirements.
Significance and Benefits
  • Enhanced Plant Nutrition: Liquid Nano Urea has demonstrated efficacy and efficiency in plant nutrition, contributing to increased production and improved nutritional quality.
  • Balanced Nutrition and Crop Health: By minimizing excess soil urea application, it supports a well-rounded nutrition plan, fostering stronger, healthier crops and reducing lodging.
  • Environmental Impact: This innovation positively affects groundwater quality and significantly reduces global warming, contributing to climate change mitigation and sustainable development.

Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO)

  • Size and Ownership: IFFCO is a prominent Indian cooperative society that is fully owned by Indian cooperatives themselves.
  • Establishment: Founded in 1967 with only 57 cooperatives, it has evolved into a conglomerate of more than 36,000 Indian cooperatives.
  • Diverse Business Interests: IFFCO’s scope extends beyond its initial focus. While its core business involves the production and distribution of fertilizers, it has diversified into various sectors, including General Insurance and Rural Telecom.
  • Enhancing Farmer Prosperity: The primary objective of IFFCO is to contribute to the well-being of Indian farmers. It aims to achieve this by ensuring the timely supply of dependable, high-quality agricultural inputs and services.
  • Environmental Sustainability: IFFCO’s operations are guided by the principle of environmental sustainability, striving to provide its services while minimizing adverse impacts on the environment.
  • Welfare Improvement: IFFCO also seeks to undertake additional initiatives that can enhance the welfare of farmers, potentially encompassing a range of activities beyond its core operations.


  • IFFCO’s Claim: IFFCO proposed that a small amount of nano liquid urea could replace a significant quantity of conventional urea.
  • Expansion Plans: The Indian central government and IFFCO aimed to scale up nano urea production and exports.
  • Concerns by Researchers: Researchers expressed apprehensions about potential repercussions, as overstated assertions could lead to substantial yield losses, affecting food security and farmers’ livelihoods.

Concerns Raised by the Paper

  • Promising Introduction: Nano liquid urea was introduced as a promising substitute for traditional granular urea.
  • Lack of Field Results: Nano liquid urea has not demonstrated tangible results in real-world applications. Farmers using it faced higher input costs without corresponding crop yield improvements.
  • Discrepancy in Claims: The disparity between product claims and practical outcomes is evident.
  • Environmental Claims Unsubstantiated: Despite IFFCO’s portrayal of nano urea as eco-friendly, the paper finds no scientific basis for this assertion.
  • Nitrogen’s Environmental Impact: The paper highlights nitrogen’s connection to environmental problems like Climate Change, Ocean Acidification, and Ozone Depletion, underscoring its significance in crop growth.

Study Recommendations

  • Addressing Excess Nitrogen: The study emphasizes the need to tackle excess nitrogen due to its detrimental environmental effects.
  • Scientific Evaluation: Transparent and rigorous scientific assessment before introducing novel agricultural technologies is vital.
  • Importance of Responsible Innovation: Given the potential impacts on food security, farmers, and the environment, responsible innovation and evidence-based decisions are crucial in agriculture.

-Source: Down To Earth

February 2024