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PIB 11th February 2021


  1. Goa completes Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms
  2. Maritime India Summit (MIS) 2021
  3. MOVCDNER Scheme for Organic Farming in North East



Goa has become the 6th State in the country to successfully undertake Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms stipulated by the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance.


GS-II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Municipal Governance in India
  2. History of Municipal Governance
  3. 74th Amendment (1992)
  4. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms

Municipal Governance in India

  • Municipal or local governance refers to the third tier of governance in India, at the level of the municipality or urban local body.
  • Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) are small local bodies that administer or govern a city or a town of a specified population.
  • They are vested with a long list of functions delegated to them by the state governments.
  • These functions broadly relate to public health, welfare, regulatory functions, public safety, public infrastructure works, and development activities.
  • There are several types of Urban Local Bodies in India such as Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, Town Area Committee, Special Purpose Agency, Township, Port Trust, Cantonment Board, etc.

History of Municipal Governance

  • It has existed since the year 1687, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726.
  • In the early part of the nineteenth century, almost all towns in India had experienced some form of municipal governance.
  • In 1882 the then Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon, known as the Father of Local Self Government, passed a resolution of local self-government which led to the democratic forms of municipal governance in India.
  • In 1919, a Government of India Act incorporated the need of the resolution and the powers of democratically elected government were formulated.
  • In 1935 another Government of India act brought local government under the preview of the state or provincial government and specific powers were given.

74th Amendment (1992)

  • It was the 74th amendment to the Constitution that brought constitutional validity to municipal or local governments.
  • Until amendments were made in respective state legislation on an ultra vires (beyond the authority) basis and the state governments were free to extend or control the functional sphere.

Urban Local Bodies (ULB) reforms

  • Reforms in Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and the urban utility reforms are aimed at the financial strengthening of ULBs to enable them to provide better public health and sanitation services to citizens.
  • Economically rejuvenated ULBs will also be able to create good civic infrastructure.
  • Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Rajasthan and Telangana have completed ULB reforms.

The four citizen-centric areas identified for reforms are:

  1. Implementation of One Nation One Ration Card System
  2. Ease of doing business reform
  3. Urban Local body/ utility reforms
  4. Power Sector reforms.

The set of reforms stipulated by the Department of Expenditure are:

  • The State will notify:
    • Floor rates of property tax in ULBs which are in consonance with the prevailing circle rates (i.e., guideline rates for property transactions) and;
    • Floor rates of user charges in respect of the provision of water supply, drainage, and sewerage which reflect current costs/past inflation.
  • The State will put in place a system of periodic increases in floor rates of property tax/ user charges in line with price increases.

-Source: PIB



The 2nd edition of Maritime India Summit (MIS) 2021 to be held virtually in 2021 will be joined by 24 partner countries and more than 400 Projects are set to be showcased.


Prelims, GS-II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Maritime India Summit (MIS) 2021

About Maritime India Summit (MIS) 2021

  • The event is being organized by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) jointly with FICCI as Industrial Partner and EY as Knowledge Partner.
  • Maritime India Summit (MIS) is going to provide a powerful platform for international collaboration and bring in partner countries for mutual exchange of knowledge and opportunities.
  • The MIS 2021 will provide a unique platform which will have physical and virtual presence of prominent shipping and transport ministers/ dignitaries from across the world.
  • Maritime States of India will participate in the Summit through dedicated sessions.
  • The Summit will also include an exclusive CEOs’ forum and various thematic/ breakout sessions.

-Source: PIB



The Prime Minister initiated a scheme for development of commercial organic farming in the region during 2015 which later became to be known as “Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region” (MOVCDNER).


GS-II: Social Justice, GS-III: Agriculture

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER)
  2. Goals of MOVCDNER
  3. Salient features of MOVCDNER

Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER)

  • North East India has traditionally been organic and the consumption of chemicals is far less than rest of the country.
  • Realizing the potential of organic farming in the North Eastern Region of the country Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare has launched a Central Sector Scheme entitled “Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region” for implementation in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, during the 12th plan period.
  • The scheme aims at development of certified organic production in a value chain mode to link growers with consumers and to support the development of entire value chain starting from inputs, seeds, certification, the creation of facilities for collection, aggregation, processing marketing and brand building initiative.
  • MOVCDNER has also played a pivotal role in entrepreneurship development and has supported both FPCs and local entrepreneurs in establishing food business.
  • Since then MOVCDNER, is instrumental in bringing a definitive change in the lives of the organic growers in the region, the scheme, provides end to end support to the farmers from farm to fork including quality production, effective postharvest management, value addition through processing and direct market linkages to national and international markets.


  1. To create at least one to two replicable end- to-end organic value chain models in each of the state with the integration of growers, handlers,processors, and market facilitation agencies.
  2. To empower 30-50 thousand farmers of northeastern region through the creation of about 100 farmer producer companies and equip such companies with full value chain under its ownership.
  3. To convert subsistence farming to commercial organic farming with end-to-end facilities.
  4. To make Northeastern states as major suppliers of organic commodities for national and international markets.
  5. To improve production system to ensure higher productivity with better profitability.
  6. To enable states to evolve their own brand.

Salient features of MOVCDNER

  1. Realising the potential of organic farming in North Eastern Region of the country Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has launched this Central Sector Scheme.
  2. Department promotes organic farming in North Eastern States
  3. North Eastern States of India will develop as organic hub of India.
  4. Farmers Interest Group (FIG)/ Farmers Producer Companies (FPCs) will be equipped with collection, aggregation, post-harvest process and linking with market facilities.
  5. 50,000 farmers will be benefitted through value chain production, processing, marketing and value chain support agencies.
  6. To enable NE Region to evolve their own brand of organic produce.
  7. Extremely rich Bio-diversity, valued options for wide range of crops to explore.

-Source: PIB

March 2024