- INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE
- SWARNIM VIJAY PARV
Focus: GS Paper – 3: Defence Technology
Why in news?
The Pinaka-ER Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System was successfully tested at Pokharan range.
- The system is jointly designed by laboratories of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) – Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE), Pune and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Pune.
- It is a Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System
- The Pinaka-ER is the upgraded version of earlier Pinaka version which has been in service with the Indian Army for the last decade.
- The system has been designed in the light of emerging requirements with advanced technologies enhancing the range.
- The extended range of the new Pinaka is over 70 km, as opposed to the 45 km the system currently has.
- It has the ability to strike within 10 metres of where it is aimed, allowing the army to destroy a terrorist camp, or an enemy post, logistics dump or headquarters without needing to send soldiers across the border.
About Pinaka Missile System:
- Pinaka is a multibarrel rocket launch (MBRL) system used by the Indian Army.
- Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Pinaka integrates state-of-the-art technologies for delivering superior combat performance.
- Its weapon system has a state-of-the-art guidance kit bolstered by an advanced navigation and control system.
- The navigation system of the missile is aided by the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
- The Mark-I version of Pinaka has a range of around 40 kilometres and the Mark-II version can fire up to 75 kilometres.
- The Pinaka Mark-II version of the rocket has been modified as a guided missile system by integrating it with the navigation, control and guidance system to improve the end accuracy and increase the range.
- The navigation system of the missile is linked with the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System.
INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE
Focus: GS Paper – 2: Groupings & Agreements Involving India and/or Affecting India’s Interests, Important International Institutions, International Treaties & Agreements, GS Paper – 3: Environmental Pollution & Degradation, Mineral & Energy Resources, Conservation
Why in news?
United Nations grants observer status to International Solar Alliance in a historic decision
- This is going to give impetus to “ One Sun One world one grid “.
- Help in bringing equitable energy solutions to the world.
- This would immensely help towards achieving the goal of net-zero carbon emissions through global co-operations.
About International Solar Alliance (ISA):
- Itis a global platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies as a means for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in its member countries.
- The ISA was conceived as a joint effort by India and France to mobilize efforts against climate change through deployment of solar energy solutions.
- It was conceptualized on the sidelines of the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015.
- It strives to develop and deploy cost-effective and transformational energy solutions powered by the sun to help member countries develop low-carbon growth trajectories, with particular focus on delivering impact in countries categorized as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
- It is the nodal agency for implementing One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG), which seeks to transfer solar power generated in one region to feed the electricity demands of others.
- The Headquarters is in India with its Interim Secretariat being set up in Gurugram.
- The ISA is guided by its ‘Towards 1000’ strategy which aims to mobilise USD 1,000 billion of investments in solar energy solutions by 2030:
- Delivering energy access to 1,000 million people using clean energy solutions
- Installation of 1,000 GW of solar energy capacity.
- Mitigate global solar emissions to the tune of 1,000 million tonnes of CO2 every year.
- At present, 101 countries are signatories to the ISA Framework Agreement
SWARNIM VIJAY PARV
Focus: GS Paper – 1: Post-independence Consolidation of India
Why in news?
Defence Minister inaugurated Swarnim Vijay Parv, an event commemorating the valour & professionalism of the Armed Forces and their contribution to the liberation of Bangladesh in the Indo-Pak 1971 war, at India Gate Lawns in New Delhi on December 12, 2021.
- It is a festival which commemorates the glorious victory of the Indian Armed Forces in the 1971 war, which changed the history and geography of South Asia.
- The event marks the culmination of year-long celebrations of 50 years of India’s victory in the war.
Indo-Pak War 1971:
- The country was partitioned into India and Pakistan at the time of Indian independence from Britain in 1947.
- Pakistan was composed of two divisions at the time, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, the Muslim-dominated portion of the former province of Bengal.
- However, soon after Pakistan’s establishment, the Bengalis were under-represented in the national government and ethnic tensions between both groups were said to exist.
- In Pakistan, there have been campaigns to designate Bengali as an official language, along with Urdu.
- The Bengali nationalist leader, Sheikh Mujibur Rehman, announced his six-point program for regional autonomy for East Pakistan.
- Mujibur ‘s East Pakistani Awami League party secured a landslide win in Pakistan’s 1970 election
- Instead of allowing Mujibur to form the government, the West Pakistani establishment called on the military to suppress dissenters in East Pakistan.
- Protests in support of Mujibur were held in East Pakistan and a violent crackdown was launched in March 1971 by West Pakistan.
- The situation worsened and let to influx of enormous refugees to India. This proved to be an economic burden on India.
- The persistent influx of migrants from East Pakistan on the domestic front has generated various problems in the border states. The resources were scarce and there was a constant struggle over the use of these resources between locals and refugees along with other social and ethnic issues.
- Also, having a hostile East Pakistan hindered the growth of the north-eastern part of the country.
- The Indian government allowed leaders of the Awami League to form a government in exile (Calcutta), gave military training to Mukti Vahini Sena on Indian soil, provided refugees with food, shelter, clothing and medical assistance despite the enormous strain on their finances
- Finally, the atrocities committed against the citizens of East Pakistan forced India to intervene on humanitarian grounds in the conflict to avoid a crisis on a large scale.
- In December 1971 India defeated Pakistan and more than 93000 Pakistani soldiers were arrested.
- Bangladesh, the new nation, was created. Mujibur, who became the first President of Bangladesh, was liberated by Pakistan.
- The 1971 war is a classic example of India’s morals and democratic traditions.
- India, through both direct and indirect interventions, played an important role in establishing Bangladesh.
- For India, the war was a decisive victory and it established India’s military supremacy over Pakistan.