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PIB – 13 DECEMBER 2021




Focus: GS Paper – 3: Defence Technology

Why in news?

The Pinaka-ER Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System was successfully tested at Pokharan range. 

The Pinaka 214 MM Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System passes through the Rajpath during the full dress rehearsal for the Republic Day Parade-2011, in New Delhi on January 23, 2011.

Key points:

  • The system is jointly designed by laboratories of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) – Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE), Pune and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Pune.
  • It is a Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System
  • The Pinaka-ER is the upgraded version of earlier Pinaka version which has been in service with the Indian Army for the last decade.
  • The system has been designed in the light of emerging requirements with advanced technologies enhancing the range.
  • The extended range of the new Pinaka is over 70 km, as opposed to the 45 km the system currently has.
  • It has the ability to strike within 10 metres of where it is aimed, allowing the army to destroy a terrorist camp, or an enemy post, logistics dump or headquarters without needing to send soldiers across the border.

About Pinaka Missile System:

  • Pinaka is a multibarrel rocket launch (MBRL) system used by the Indian Army.
  • Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Pinaka integrates state-of-the-art technologies for delivering superior combat performance.
  • Its weapon system has a state-of-the-art guidance kit bolstered by an advanced navigation and control system.
  • The navigation system of the missile is aided by the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
  • The Mark-I version of Pinaka has a range of around 40 kilometres and the Mark-II version can fire up to 75 kilometres.
  • The Pinaka Mark-II version of the rocket has been modified as a guided missile system by integrating it with the navigation, control and guidance system to improve the end accuracy and increase the range.
  • The navigation system of the missile is linked with the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System.


Focus: GS Paper – 2: Groupings & Agreements Involving India and/or Affecting India’s Interests, Important International Institutions, International Treaties & Agreements, GS Paper – 3: Environmental Pollution & Degradation, Mineral & Energy Resources, Conservation

Why in news?

United Nations grants observer status to International Solar Alliance in a historic decision


  • This is going to give impetus to “ One Sun One world one grid “.
  • Help in bringing equitable energy solutions to the world.
  • This would immensely help towards achieving the goal of net-zero carbon emissions through global co-operations.

About International Solar Alliance (ISA):

  • Itis a global platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies as a means for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in its member countries.
  • The ISA was conceived as a joint effort by India and France to mobilize efforts against climate change through deployment of solar energy solutions.
  • It was conceptualized on the sidelines of the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015.
  • It strives to develop and deploy cost-effective and transformational energy solutions powered by the sun to help member countries develop low-carbon growth trajectories, with particular focus on delivering impact in countries categorized as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
  • It is the nodal agency for implementing One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG), which seeks to transfer solar power generated in one region to feed the electricity demands of others.
  • The Headquarters is in India with its Interim Secretariat being set up in Gurugram.
  • The ISA is guided by its ‘Towards 1000’ strategy which aims to mobilise USD 1,000 billion of investments in solar energy solutions by 2030:
    • Delivering energy access to 1,000 million people using clean energy solutions 
    • Installation of 1,000 GW of solar energy capacity.
    • Mitigate global solar emissions to the tune of 1,000 million tonnes of CO2 every year. 
  • At present, 101 countries are signatories to the ISA Framework Agreement


Focus: GS Paper – 1: Post-independence Consolidation of India

Why in news?

Defence Minister inaugurated Swarnim Vijay Parv, an event commemorating the valour & professionalism of the Armed Forces and their contribution to the liberation of Bangladesh in the Indo-Pak 1971 war, at India Gate Lawns in New Delhi on December 12, 2021. 

Key points:

  • It is a festival which commemorates the glorious victory of the Indian Armed Forces in the 1971 war, which changed the history and geography of South Asia. 
  • The event marks the culmination of year-long celebrations of 50 years of India’s victory in the war. 

Indo-Pak War 1971:

  • Background:
    • The country was partitioned into India and Pakistan at the time of Indian independence from Britain in 1947.
    • Pakistan was composed of two divisions at the time, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, the Muslim-dominated portion of the former province of Bengal.
    • However, soon after Pakistan’s establishment, the Bengalis were under-represented in the national government and ethnic tensions between both groups were said to exist.
    • In Pakistan, there have been campaigns to designate Bengali as an official language, along with Urdu.
    • The Bengali nationalist leader, Sheikh Mujibur Rehman, announced his six-point program for regional autonomy for East Pakistan.
    • Mujibur ‘s East Pakistani Awami League party secured a landslide win in Pakistan’s 1970 election
    • Instead of allowing Mujibur to form the government, the West Pakistani establishment called on the military to suppress dissenters in East Pakistan.
    • Protests in support of Mujibur were held in East Pakistan and a violent crackdown was launched in March 1971 by West Pakistan.
    • The situation worsened and let to influx of enormous refugees to India. This proved to be an economic burden on India.
    • The persistent influx of migrants from East Pakistan on the domestic front has generated various problems in the border states. The resources were scarce and there was a constant struggle over the use of these resources between locals and refugees along with other social and ethnic issues.
    • Also, having a hostile East Pakistan hindered the growth of the north-eastern part of the country. 
    • The Indian government allowed leaders of the Awami League to form a government in exile (Calcutta), gave military training to Mukti Vahini Sena on Indian soil, provided refugees with food, shelter, clothing and medical assistance despite the enormous strain on their finances
    • Finally, the atrocities committed against the citizens of East Pakistan forced India to intervene on humanitarian grounds in the conflict to avoid a crisis on a large scale.
    • In December 1971 India defeated Pakistan and more than 93000 Pakistani soldiers were arrested.
    • Bangladesh, the new nation, was created. Mujibur, who became the first President of Bangladesh, was liberated by Pakistan.
  • The 1971 war is a classic example of India’s morals and democratic traditions.
  • India, through both direct and indirect interventions, played an important role in establishing Bangladesh.
  • For India, the war was a decisive victory and it established India’s military supremacy over Pakistan.
May 2024