- BHAGWAN BIRSA MUNDA
- EKLAVYA MODEL RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
BHAGWAN BIRSA MUNDA
Focus: GS I- History
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has paid rich tributes to Bhagwan Birsa Munda on his Jayanti.
- Government of India has declared that the birth anniversary of Bhagwan Birsa Munda will be celebrated as Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas.
- To mark the occasion, Prime Minister inaugurated Bhagwan Birsa Munda Memorial Udyan Freedom Fighter Museum – Bhagwan Birsa Munda Memorial Garden Freedom Fighter Museum at Ranchi via video conferencing.
About Birsa Munda
- Birsa Munda (also known as Dharti Aaba (Father of Earth)) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe.
- He spearheaded a tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the Bengal Presidency (now Jharkhand) in the late 19th century, during the British Raj, thereby making him an important figure in the history of the Indian independence movement.
- The revolt mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.
- Having gained awareness of the British colonial ruler and the efforts of the missionaries to convert tribals to Christianity, Birsa started the faith of ‘Birsait’.
- Members of the Munda and Oraon community joined the Birsait sect and it turned into a challenge to British conversion activities.
- Further, he urged the Mundas to give up drinking liquor, clean their village, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
- Munda Rebellion is one of the most important tribal movements led by Birsa Munda in the south of Ranchi in 1899-1900.
- The ‘Ulgulan’ or the ‘Great Tumult’ as the movement came to be called, aimed at establishing Munda Raj by driving out the British.
- The movement identified following forces as the cause of the misery the Mundas were suffering like The British Land policies destroying their traditional land system, Hindu Landlords and Moneylenders taking over their land, and Missionaries criticizing their traditional culture.
- On 3rd March, 1900, Birsa Munda was arrested by the British police while he was sleeping with his tribal guerilla army at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).
- The Munda Rebellion forced the colonial government to introduce laws so that the land of the tribals could not be easily taken over by dikus (Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908).
- It showed that the tribal people had the capacity to protest against injustice and express their anger against colonial rule.
EKLAVYA MODEL RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
Focus: GS II- Vulnerable Sections
Why in News?
Prime Minister laid foundation stone of 50 new Eklavya Model Residential Schools on occasion of Janjatiya Gaurav Divas as part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.
About Eklavya Model Residential Schools:
- EMRS started in the year 1997-98 to impart quality education to ST children in remote areas in order to enable them to avail of opportunities in high and professional education courses and get employment in various sectors.
- Across the country, as per census 2011 figures, there are 564 such sub-districts out of which there is an EMRS in 102 sub-districts.
- As per revised 2018 scheme, every block with more than 50% ST population and at least 20,000 tribal persons, will have an EMRS by the year 2022.
- These schools will be on par with Navodaya Vidyalayas and will have special facilities for preserving local art and culture besides providing training in sports and skill development.
Objectives of EMRS:
- Comprehensive physical, mental and socially relevant development of all students enrolled in each and every EMRS. Students will be empowered to be change agent, beginning in their school, in their homes, in their village and finally in a larger context.
- Focus differentially on the educational support to be made available to those in Standards XI and XII, and those in standards VI to X, so that their distinctive needs can be met,
- Support the annual running expenses in a manner that offers reasonable remuneration to the staff and upkeep of the facilities.
- Support the construction of infrastructure that provides education, physical, environmental and cultural needs of student life.
Features of EMRS
- Admission to these schools will be through selection/competition with suitable provision for preference to children belonging to Primitive Tribal Groups, first-generation students, etc.
- Sufficient land would be given by the State Government for the school, playgrounds, hostels, residential quarters, etc., free of cost.
- The number of seats for boys and girls will be equal.
- In these schools, education will be entirely free.
Focus: GS III- Defence
Why in News?
Indian Naval Ship (INS) Karmuk, an indigenously built Missile Corvette is participating in the 3rd edition of India, Singapore and Thailand Trilateral Maritime Exercise SITMEX – 21, from 15 to 16 Nov 21 in Andaman Sea.
- SITMEX is being conducted annually since 2019 with an aim to enhance mutual inter-operability and imbibing best practices.
- The maiden edition of SITMEX was hosted by IN off Port Blair in September 2019.
- The exercise is being conducted as a ‘non-contact, at sea only’ exercise in view of COVID-19 restrictions and highlights growing synergy, coordination and cooperation in the maritime domain between the three friendly navies.
- The two days of maritime drills will witness the three navies engaged in a various tactical exercises including naval manoeuvres and surface warfare drills.
- SITMEX-21 will fortify the long-standing bond of friendship and further enhance the cooperation between the participating navies towards augmenting the overall maritime security in the region.