- BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile Successfully Test Fired from Indian Navy’s Stealth Destroyer, INS Chennai.
- CSIR-CMERI develops Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility
- Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh lays the Foundation Stone of the new education complex named after Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya in the Central University of Jammu campus
- BSVI introduction a revolutionary step: Shri Prakash Javadekar
- Indian Navy – Sri Lanka Navy Maritime Exercise SLINEX-20 off Trincomalee
BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile Successfully Test Fired from Indian Navy’s Stealth Destroyer, INS Chennai;-
Focus: GS 3 ; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
Why in News?
Secretary DDR&D & Chairman DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy, congratulated the scientists and all personnel of DRDO, BrahMos, Indian Navy and industry for the successful feat. He stated that BrahMos missiles will add to the capabilities of Indian Armed Forces in many ways.
BrahMos, the supersonic cruise missile was successfully test fired from Indian Navy’s indigenously-built stealth destroyer INS Chennai, hitting a target in the Arabian Sea. The missile hit the target successfully with pin-point accuracy after performing high-level and extremely complex maneuvers.
About BRAHMOS Missile:-
BrahMos as ‘prime strike weapon’ will ensure the warship’s invincibility by engaging naval surface targets at long ranges, thus making the destroyer another lethal platform of Indian Navy. The highly versatile BrahMos has been jointly designed, developed and produced by India and Russia.
BRAHMOS is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the NPOM of Russia.
- Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
- It is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.
- However, India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.
- Brahmos is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft, with a weight of 2.5 tonnes.
- Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works in both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
- It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e it does not require further guidance after launch.
- Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missile currently operationally deployed with speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.
Difference between Cruise and Ballistic Missile :-
Below is the image of Ballistic Missile and Cruise Missile or Ground Hugging Trajectory;-
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR);-
- MTCR an informal grouping established in 1987 by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
- The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
- MTCR places particular focus on rockets and unmanned aerial vehicles capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg to a range of at least 300 km.
- The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally binding obligations.
DRDO stands for Defence Research and Development Organisation. It was established in 1958 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Defence (Raksha Mantralay).
History of DRDO
Established in 1958 by the Government of India, it was instituted by combining three major defence organizations namely:
- Defence Science Organisation (DSO)
- Defence Technical Development Establishment (DTDE)
- Directorate of Technical Development and Production (DTDP)
- With a project in 1960 on Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM), the Project Indigo was the DRDO’s first major defence project. This project was discontinued without any success.
- DRDO started with just 10 different laboratories in the country and now haw has more than 50 labs across the nation researching in different sectors of technology and defence.
- DRDO Hq is in New Delhi.
CSIR-CMERI develops Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility;-
Focus: GS 3 ; Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Why in News?
To throw more light on the subject, Prof. (Dr.) Harish Hirani, Director, CSIR-CMERI, Durgapur, deliberated on the issue in his Keynote address at programme ‘KrishiJagran’, live-streamed on its Facebook Page . He charted out the historical development of traditional Waste Processing Techniques and demonstrated how the present scenario demands special customized attention towards the processing of Municipal Solid Wastes.
About Solid Waste Management ;
- Waste management and diligent planning becomes critical for regulation of humongous solid waste being generated every day. With growing urbanization and rise of smart cities on the offing the issue of solid waste management becomes even more imperative.
- The changing ecological scenarios requires special attention to address the issue of ‘Sustainable Processing of Municipal Solid Waste’.
- This is not only a necessary component of converting waste into useful end products but also to maintain a cleaner environment and to safeguard contamination of soil, air and water.
- Ineffective processing of Wastes are the root of all diseases as the dumped Landfills become the Contamination Hubs for Pathogens, Bacteria and Viruses. Besides, they also become the cauldron for emission of Methane Gas, especially during the churning mechanisms deployed during Composting processes.
What are the contributions of its Solid Waste components?
Solid waste encompasses the following waste components:
Construction and demolition waste – wastes generated in construction of new buildings, renovation and demolition work.
Plastic waste– includes polythene bags, plastic bottles etc
Biomedical waste – wastes involved in diagnosis, treatment and immunization such as human and animal anatomical waste, treatment apparatus such as needles and syringes and cytotoxic drugs.
Hazardous waste– wastes that cause immediate danger to exposed individuals or environment.
E-waste – includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), printed circuit board (PCB), mobile phones and chargers, compact discs, headphones etc.
Why is there a dire need for Solid Waste Management?
- Most of the dumpsites of megacities have reached way beyond their capacity and permissible height limit of 20 meters. It is estimated that more than 10,000 hectares of urban land are locked in these dumpsites in India.
- The per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 grams to 600 grams per day.
- Only about 75-80% of the municipal waste gets collected and only 22-28 % of this waste is processed and treated.
- The proliferation of airless open dumps of garbage leads to emissions of methane, which absorbs the sun’s heat, warms the atmosphere and contributes to global warming.
- Leachate, which is a black liquid oozing out from the waste as it slowly decomposes over a period of 25 to 30 years, contaminates soil and groundwater.
- Foul odour from the waste rotting in airless heaps, and smoke from the fires that routinely erupt in them, are other consequences of dumping waste in the open.
- The earlier landfills are without bottom liners and sideliners, which allows the Leachate to seep into the ground causing groundwater and land pollution.
- The dumpsites being open and easily accessible, have become a site for further dumping by the public aggravating the situation.
Legislation in India
Solid Waste Management Rules 2016:-
- These rules replace the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, are now applicable beyond municipal areas and have included urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships etc.
- They focus on segregation of waste at source, responsibility on the manufacturer to dispose of sanitary and packaging wastes, user fees for collection, disposal and processing from the bulk generator.
- It has also been advised that the bio-degradable waste should be processed, treated and disposed of through composting or bio-methanation within the premises as far as possible and the residual waste shall be given to the waste collectors or agency as directed by the local authority.
- The rules promote the use of compost, conversion of waste into energy, revision of parameters for landfills location and capacity.
- The government has also constituted a Central Monitoring Committee under the chairmanship of Secretary, MoEF&CC to monitor the overall implementation of the rules.
- The Rules for the Safe Treatment of Legacy Waste prescribe bio-remediation and bio-mining in all open dumpsites and existing operational dumpsites in India.
- Apart from this, Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution of India makes it a fundamental duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.
Other Techniques for Solid Waste Management ;-
Pyrolysis;- (UPSC Prelims 2019 Mcq)
Pyrolysis process wherein conversion of plastics into gas and fuel are done. This is an environment-friendly process and produces within permissible toxins as conversion happens in the anaerobic chamber. Heavy oil, gas being used in pyrolysis helps in obtaining self-sustainability.
Plasma Gasification Process;-
- Plasma gasification is a multi-stage process which starts with feed inputs ranging from waste to coal to plant matter, and can include hazardous wastes. During gasification, carbon-based materials break down into gases and the inorganic materials melt into liquid slag which is poured off and cooled.
- Through Plasma Gasification Process also eco-friendly disposal of solid wastes is processed without formation and reformation of toxic dioxins and furans. The Decentralized Solid Waste Management Plant developed by CSIR-CMERI has all the potentials to managing any contaminants available in the wastes.
- As in the time of Pandemic situation, waste management and its disposal has become hectic , dealing wastes is a tedious task and its segregation too.
- Many Government schemes like Swachh bharat and India adhering norms of UN Sustainable Development Goals is also very important criteria for better management of Environment i.e SDG Goals SGD 3, SDG 6, SDG13, SDG14, SDG15 etc.
- Laying down clear technical norms: It is important that Bio-mining and Bio-remediation is made compulsory for areas wherever it can be applied. It shouldn’t be left to the discretion of municipalities to decide whether there are geographical constraints that prevent the use of the aforementioned techniques.
- Biomining and Bioremediation are superior as well as simple methods which are not only cost-effective but also environment-friendly. The best part is that the land which was a landfill is fully available for alternate uses.
- Scientific Capping: Capping, if it is inevitable, should be done scientifically with underground pits that have a good bottom and sideliners, and proper piping and gas extraction systems to prevent the escape of leachate and gases.
- Decentralization of waste management: It is important that waste management is decentralized. Ambikapur in Chhattisgarh and Vellore present a very good example of the same where the waste was collected in a decentralized manner, composted naturally and is planted.
- It is important that the decision-makers at all levels of government opt for more innovative and green approaches rather than falling for the technology-extensive costly methods of waste disposal which are normally being lobbied for by the manufacturers of such technologies.
Bioremediation: Bioremediation uses natural as well as recombinant microorganisms to break down toxic and hazardous substances in a solid waste by aerobic and anaerobic means.
Biomining: Biomining is the process of using microorganisms (microbes) to extract metals of economic interest from rock ores or mine waste. Biomining techniques may also be used to clean up sites that have been polluted with metals.
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is the largest research and development (R&D) organization in India. CSIR has a pan-India presence and has a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units.
- PM is the Ex-Officio.
- Established: September 1942
- Located: New Delhi
- CSIR is funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology and it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
- CSIR covers a wide spectrum of streams – from radio and space physics, oceanography, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and information technology.
- It provides significant technological intervention in many areas with regard to societal efforts which include the environment, health, drinking water, food, housing, energy, farm and non-farm sectors.
- The Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) is the apex R&D institute for mechanical engineering under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
- Being the only national level research institute in this field, CMERI·s mandate is to serve industry and develop mechanical engineering technology so that India’s dependence on foreign collaboration is substantially reduced in strategic and economy sectors.
- Besides, the institute is facilitating innovations and inventions for establishing the claims of Indian talent in international fields where Indian products shall ultimately compete.
Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh lays the Foundation Stone of the new education complex named after Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya in the Central University of Jammu campus;-
Focus: GS 3 ; The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country
Why in News?
Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh today laid the Foundation Stone of the new education complex named after Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya in the Central University of Jammu campus and said, Central University Jammu is one of the first Central Universities in India to have such an educational complex named after Shri Malviya.
About Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya;-
- Born on 25th December 1861, in Allahabad (now Prayagraj) in Uttar Pradesh, Malviya played a key role in the Indian independence struggle against British rule and founded the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1916.
- He is also remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system, especially in the Caribbean.
- Indentured labour was a system of bonded labour that was instituted following the abolition of slavery in 1833.
- Indentured labour were recruited to work on sugar, cotton and tea plantations, and rail construction projects in British colonies in West Indies, Africa and South East Asia.
- He popularized the term ‘Satyamev Jayate’. However, the phrase originally belongs to the Mundaka Upanishad. The term now is the national motto of India.
- He was given the title of ‘Mahamana’ by Rabindranath Tagore and the second President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan gave him the status of a ‘Karmayogi’.
- Devnagri was introduced in the British-Indian courts because of Malviya’s efforts with the British government. This is still considered as one of his greatest achievements.
- Madan Mohan Malviya was expelled from the Brahmin community for expressing his views on caste discrimination and Brahmanical patriarchy. He worked immensely for Hindu-Muslim unity. He is known to have given famous speeches on communal harmony.
- He helped establish the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”) in 1906, which brought diverse local Hindu nationalist movements together.
- Malaviya’s consciousness toward the public led to the launch of his own Hindi-language weekly, the Abhyudaya (1907); the Leader of Allahabad, an English-language daily (1909); and the Hindi monthly the Maryada (1910). He also served as the chairman of the board of Hindustan times and facilitated the launch of its Hindi edition.
- He died on 12th November, 1946, at the age of 84.
- In 2014, he was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, the country’s highest civilian award.
Poona Pact (1932) ;-
It was signed by Ambedkar on behalf of the depressed classes and Madan Mohan Malviya on behalf of the Upper Caste Hindus as a means to end the fast that Gandhi was undertaking in jail as a protest against the MacDonald communal award.
About Bharat Ratna;-
- The Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India), instituted in 1954 is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.
- It is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour.
- The recommendations for the Bharat Ratna are made by the Prime Minister to the President with a maximum of three nominees being awarded per year.
- Recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a peepal-leaf–Shaped medallion; there is no monetary grant associated with the award.
- Bharat Ratna recipients rank seventh in the Indian order of precedence.
BSVI introduction a revolutionary step: Shri Prakash Javadekar;-
Focus: GS 3 ; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Why in News?
Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate change Shri Prakash Javadekar today interacted live on his Facebook, speaking on the issue of air pollution and the steps being taken by the Central government to combat it. People interacted with the Union Minister sending questions and suggestions with the Hashtag #AskPrakashJavadekar.
About BS-VI Emission Norms;-
- The Union Environment Minister has recently announced that the BS-VI Emissions norms will be implemented from the year 2020, and this will drastically reduce vehicular pollution.
- In order to comply with BS-VI norms, the vehicle manufacturers need to move to the new technology to make vehicles compliant with the BS VI standards.
- The switch to BS-VI vehicles was to happen in 2022 but looking at the poor air condition, the move was advanced by four years.
- All vehicles will have to follow new standards (BS -VI) from 1st April, 2020. The standards cover four and two-wheelers and commercial vehicles.
- At present, BS IV and BS III fuels are available across India.
- Due to their use, hazardous pollutants in the air are increasing leading to health ailments like Asthma, Bronchitis, heart diseases and even cancer.
Bharat Stage Emission Standards
- The Bharat Stage (BS) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles.
- The Environment Ministry is responsible for deciding the fuel standard in the country. The Central Pollution Control Board implements these standards.
- The BS regulations are based on the European emission standards.
- Companies can come up with new vehicles with BS VI fuel standards even before the April 2020 deadline. But after the deadline, vehicles that do not comply with BS VI standards will not be registered.
- With the implementation of new norms, pollution levels are expected to come down significantly as the particulate matter (PM) will decrease. About one-third of the air pollution is caused by cars and motor vehicles.
Advantages of BS-VI fuel Over BS-IV Fuel
- In BS-VI fuel, the volume of PM 2.5 ranges from 20 to 40 micrograms per cubic metre whereas in BS-IV fuel it is up to 120 micrograms per cubic metre.
- BS-VI fuel will bring down sulphur content by 5 times from the current BS-IV levels. It has 10 ppm of sulphur as against 50 ppm in BS-IV.
- Sulphur in the fuel contributes to fine particulate matter emissions. High sulphur content in the fuel also leads to corrosion and wear of the automobile engine.
- With BS-VI fuel, for every one kilometre, a car will emit 80% less particulate matter and nearly 70% less nitrogen oxide.
- Air pollutants in BS-VI fuel are much less as compared to BS-IV fuel.
- BS-VI norms also seek to reduce the level of certain harmful hydrocarbons in the emissions that are produced due to incomplete combustion of fuel.
Advantages of the Shift
- By reducing toxic substances in the air, BS-VI will help reduce air pollution.
- BS-VI will reduce NOx drastically, thus improving air quality.
- NOx is the primary cause of a lot of health issues, especially respiratory issues.
- The lower sulphur in BS VI will help reduce harmful exhaust emissions like NO2, CO, SO2.
- Vehicles that have emission control systems will perform even better with BS-VI.
- For old vehicles, BS-VI standards open up an option of retrofitting.
- Oil companies are making significant changes in their oil refining technique. The new standard requires that the use of sulphur in diesel should come down to 10 PPM, whereas according to the BS -II, it was up to 500 PPM. This change will affect the density of diesel oil. The usual density of BS IV fuel diesel ranges from 820 to 845 kg/ cubic metre but now it has to be increased to 860 kg/ cubic metre.
- The change in density will help improve the quality of oil as well as help reduce air pollution.
- The Auto Fuel Vision Policy, 2025 in June 2014 had recommended a 75 paise cess to recoup additional investments projected for producing cleaner fuels.
- As the problem of air pollution has turned into a global challenge, concerted efforts by all stakeholders are required to deal with this pressing issue.
Indian Navy – Sri Lanka Navy Maritime Exercise SLINEX-20 off Trincomalee;-
Focus: GS 2 ; India and its neighborhood- relations
Why in News?
- The Eighth Edition of annual Indian Navy (IN) – Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) bilateral maritime exercise SLINEX-20 is scheduled off Trincomalee, Sri Lanka from 19 to 21 October 2020.
- The Sri Lanka Navy will be represented by SLN Ships Sayura (Offshore Patrol Vessel) and Gajabahu(Training Ship) led by Rear Admiral Bandara Jayathilaka, the Flag Officer Commanding Naval Fleet, Sri Lanka Navy.
- Indigenously built ASW corvettesKamorta and Kiltanunder the command of Rear Admiral Sanjay Vatsayan, Flag Officer Commanding Eastern Fleet, will represent the Indian Navy.
- In addition, Indian Navy Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) and Chetak helicopter embarked onboard IN ships, and Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft will also be participating. The previous edition of SLINEX was conducted off Visakhapatnam in September 2019.
- SLINEX (Sri Lanka India Naval Exercise) are a series of naval exercises between the Indian Navy and the Sri Lanka Navy
- The first ever SLINEX exercise took place in 2005.
- SLINEX series of exercise exemplifies the deep engagement between India and Sri Lanka which has strengthened mutual cooperation in the maritime domain.
- Interaction between the SLN and IN has also grown significantly in recent years, in consonance with India’s policy of ‘Neighbourhood First’ and Hon’ble PM’s vision of ‘Security and Growth for all in the Region (SAGAR)’.
- Given the proximity of the territorial waters of both countries, especially in the Palk Straits and the Gulf of Mannar, incidents of straying of fishermen are common.
- Both countries have agreed on certain practical arrangements to deal with the issue of bona fide fishermen of either side crossing the International Maritime Boundary Line.
- India and Sri Lanka conduct joint Military ( ‘Mitra Shakti’) and Naval exercise (SLINEX).